Determinate sentences involve sentences that have a fixed or flat time (Jirard, 2009). Determinate sentences play a large part in the increasing number of individuals in prison, which, as you can imagine, puts more strain on prisons financially. In the past two decades, we have become increasingly “tough on crime” which has helped to decrease crime to a certain extent. According to an article in the New York Times (2008), the US has fewer than five percent of the entire world’s population, but almost twenty five percent of the world’s prisoners (Liptak & , 2008). The author of the article goes on to say that people in the US are sentenced to do time for crimes that would not produce such a sentence in other countries.
However, few studies have examined depression among HIV-infected persons being released from prison and their post-release needs (see, for example Baillargeon et al. 2003). To expand our understanding of this high risk and vulnerable population, we conducted an exploratory examination of HIV-infected inmates in the North Carolina prison system. Our research questions were threefold: (a) what proportion of a soon-to-be released HIV-infected prison sample screens positive for depression, and of these, what proportion are identified as depressed; (b) do depressed and non-depressed HIV-infected inmates differ with regard to characteristics such as demographics, medical history, or prison history; and (c) is depression a significant predictor of coping self-efficacy, pre-incarceration needs or anticipated post-release needs in this HIV-infected prison sample. Findings may have great relevance for effective prison release planning and successful community reintegration for HIV-infected
These eye-popping numbers came about for many reasons: mandatory minimum sentences, three-strikes legislation, illegal drugs, gangs, immorality in all its modern forms, the war on drugs, the decline of marriage and families, high rates of recidivism, incarceration of the mentally ill, the decline of capital punishment, problems with the criminal justice system and all the forces pushing tough crime policies. Difficult economic times focus attention on the increasing costs of keeping all these people - 93% of them men - behind bars. Each prisoner costs about $32,000 per year, and the average prisoner does little to offset the cost of confinement. The social costs may be even higher. Breadwinners are lost, families destroyed, more kids grow up without fathers or mothers, welfare costs increase, the entire sex ratio is thrown out of balance and prisoners face grim prospects when released.
359) it was assumed that the most common exclusion was re-incarceration at the time of or shortly after release. The demographics and clinical characteristics reflecting the HIV-infected incarcerated population was most of the participants were male and African-American, almost three quarters had prior prison incarcerations and over half suffer from depression. “Of the 89 subjects included in the analyses, 31 (72.1%) in the BCM and 28 (60.9%) in the SOC arms completed the week 48
4/1/2013 The New Asylums Prisons are now housing more than 500,000 mentally ill inmates across the nation. Many of these inmates are classified as severely mental ill and fit the psychiatric classification for major illnesses such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, anti social personality disorder and many more. The question is why are so many clinically ill individuals who should be receiving medical care from medical facility being placed behind bars. Many believe that increase in mentally ill inmates is due to major policy shifts over the past few decades. one of these major shifts spurs from the decision made in 1950 to close many of the mental hospitals throughout the nation.
The events detailed in this book, And The Band Plays On, serves as a paradigm for improving the lives of HIV infected individuals, primarily by outlining the many mistakes that were made. It is clearly delineated in the book how the significance of unity and having a common goal is necessary to overcome an epidemic. It shows the monstrosity created when self-interest, lack of education and ignorance replaces common interest, substantial knowledge, and logic. The book demonstrates the difference that social work might have played and did play when and if educated properly. The utilization of social work could have offset the cold and insensitive manner that HIV/ AIDS patients received.
To go to a public school it’s required to have a physical every couple of years, and I wonder how many of the people detained in jail have not been to a doctor in years, and may be getting sicker and possibly spreading it to others. In another article I read called “Chronic Medical Conditions among Jail Detainees in Residential Psychiatric Treatment: A Latent Analysis” published in the Journal of Urban Health August, 2011 there are studies that show that detainees with mental illnesses have significantly higher rates of chronic medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and infectious diseases. There is also evidence to suggest that long-term detainees are at higher risk of having mental illness, and therefore, according to this study, are at higher risk of having infectious diseases. If this is certainly the case than the importance of screening long-term detainees is crucial. (Swartz,
62% of local jail inmates are awaiting trial. The cost of medical care for inmates grows by 10% annually. High rates of incarceration are due to sentence length. The United States incarcerates a large number of non-violent and victimless offenders. 50% of all prisoners are non-violent offenders, and 20% are drug related offenders.
Since the mid-1970s, the prison population in the nation’s largest state has risen by more than 750%, from about 20,000 to more than 160,000 (Equal Justice Initiative, 2010). California’s prison system is among one of the worst in the system and part of it is due to their adaptation of their “Three Strikes” laws. The laws are harsh and the criminals, especially the ones already having two strikes don’t seem to care about the seriousness of committing crimes. California’s prisons, 33 total, are operating at almost twice their design capacity. Overcrowding is a very serious issue that worries the state officials such as Governor Schwarzenegger.
The issue of prison conditions and the impacts they have on the future lives of inmates has attracted significant interest in the American society. One of the most important trends in the U.S justice system is that out of 600, 000 inmates that are released from prison each year, about two-thirds end up being rearrested after three years (Chen & Shapiro, 2007). In this respect, the objective of this paper is to discuss prison life and strategies that can be adopted in prisons to reduce recidivism. Analysis of the Purposes for Prisons in the U.S Justice System The correctional facilities in the U.S are principally meant to ensure that the sentences that have been prescribed by the Courts on offenders are implemented to the letter. Nevertheless, correctional administrators in the modern correctional facilities have been enlightened in that they recognize a broader responsibility and mission of prisons.