Purines however are made of a six-sided ring joined to a five-sided ring. These rings are joined with hydrogen bonds and the bases in this group are adenine and guanine. This means that to make a base pairing a pyrimidine must bond with a purine. There are different numbers of bonds between the four bases, when adenine and thymine are joined there are only two hydrogen bonds, but when cytosine and guanine join there are three hydrogen bonds. Original DNA model by Watson and Crick.
Hemoglobin, Myoglobin structure function and evolution The function of the globin family is to bind and transport oxygen molecules. Each oxygen molecule binds to a heme group. The heme group consists of a ring of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms called ‘porphyrin’, with an atom of iron (fe2+) at its centre. A histidine side chain of the protein binds to the iron atom at the centre of the heme. Heme is non-covalently bound to the protein and gives blood its red colour.
Which include fats, oils, waxes, and cholesterol. They are mostly made up of long chains of monomers. Which is also known as fatty acids. Proteins are polymers made from monomers called amino acids. Which are building blocks of life.
All nucleic acids have two distinctive ends: the 5’ (5-prime) and 3’ (3-prime) ends, which refers to the carbons on the sugar. For both DNA and RNA, the 5' end bears a phosphate, and the 3' end a hydroxyl group. Nucleic acids are synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction. The following diagram represents the general structure of part of a DNA molecule showing its bond type and organisation: Cellular respiration: Aerobic respiration involves a catabolic reaction in which the larger molecules (nucleic acids) are reduced to smaller units (nucleotides) and this occurs in glycolysis. The covalent bonds (high energy bonds) between nucleotides create energy when broken and mostly occur in the cytoplasm.
Figure 1 shows the amino acid sequence for one of those chains in eight mammals. Each letter stands for a different amino acid. Each column is a location on the protein chain. NOTE: Locations where the amino acids are identical in all eight mammals are not shown. 96 Name
The unknown sample’s Rf values were 0.42, 0.82. The Rf values suggest that components of the unknown sample are Lysine and Phenylalanine. 9) Explain the structure of the amino acid that determines its polarity or non-polarity. The polarity or non-polarity of an amino acid is determined by the R group of the amino acid. Every amino acid has a
The number of protons an atom has is its atomic number. The atomic number plus the number of neutrons the atom has is the atom’s atomic weight. Carbon is the element responsible for life on earth. Carbon creates the backbone of amino acids, which are what make up proteins. The suffix –ine is used for amino acids, and the suffix –yl is used for the protein’s structure.
Chantal Edouard Cytochrome C Oxidase The cytochrome oxidase of eukaryotes is a very complex protein assembly containing from 8 to 13 polypeptide subunits, two hemes, a and a3, and two atoms of copper. The two hemes are chemically identical but are placed in different protein environments, so that heme a can accept an electron from cytochrome c and heme a3 can react with oxygen. When cytochrome oxidase has accepted four electrons, one from each of four molecules of reduced cytochrome c, both its hemes and both its copper atoms are in reduced form, and it can transfer the electrons in a series of reactions to a molecule of oxygen to yield two molecules of water. Cytochrome oxidase straddles the inner membrane of mitochondria, part of it on the matrix side, part within the membrane, and part on the outer surface or cytochrome c side of the inner membrane. Cytochrome c is the only protein member of the respiratory chain that is freely mobile in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.
Proteins are a polymer, and are used in many areas of organisms. Amino acid monomers are joined by peptide bonds to create a polypeptide that we commonly call a protein. There are around 20 amino acids used when synthesising proteins within an organism. These proteins can be found in different structures, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. The structure of these proteins is decided by the side R-group found on the combination of amino acids.
The centre component which is a sugar molecule is pentose (ribose) - consisting of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Attached to the 1’ carbon atom of ribose is the second group called adenine (the base). Adenine is a purine base because it is made up of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms, and therefore has double (fused) rings of nitrogen and carbon atoms (Vander et al. 1998, p.31). As Adenine is