In October 1947, the Committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other professionals about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party. This was called the “Black List”, also known as the “Hollywood Ten”, they cited the First Amendment, but this tactic failed and they were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress (Wales and Sanger). The military was also at risk and 83 alleged Communist were discharged, also nearly 3,000 seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this cause (Drummey). Suspected homosexuality was also common cause for being a target for McCarthyism. In many cases simply being subpoenaed was sufficient cause to be fired and blamed for this horrific
Anyone accused of being a Communist (reasons included signing a petition, attending a protest, joining unions or private organizations, selling atomic secrets and being related to Communists) would be put on trial for a senate hearing. “By putting Communists on trial, the Truman administration shaped the American public’s view of domestic communism. It transformed party members from political dissidents into criminals-with all the implications that such associations inspired in a nation of law-abiding citizens” (Schrecker 27). The program tests federal employees and prohibits anyone associated with Communists within the government. The nation’s security is a example of Communism shown through agents like Alger Hiss, who brought before HUAC on charges of being Russian spy.
U.S. History Between 1950 through 1990 many important historical events occurred. The years succeeding WW II resulted in a tense military, political, and ideological rivalry between The United Sates and the Soviet Union who became the key players in the cold war. The Cold War involved democracy and capitalism in an attempt to vanish communism. Another major event that also took place during this time period is the Vietnam War. As if this weren’t enough, to make matters worse the civil rights movement intensified the standing of this time period.
After World War II, all of the America was in fear and terror that communism in the face of the Soviet Union could gain world domination, especially since half of Europe was under the influence of Stalin. In connection with this, in 1947, the 33rd U.S. President Harry Truman ordered a review of all government employees. There were many willing to save the country from communists, but the most successful of all was the senator from Wisconsin, Joseph Raymond McCarthy. February 9, 1950, he gave a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia in which he declared that the United States Government was filled with Communists and in the Office of Dean Acheson who was the Secretary of State under Truman, the number had reached 205 people. This event is considered to be
The anarchist used the Postal System to send over 20 bombs which were to explode upon opening, however the authorities discovered these bombs before they could detinate, and cause any harm. The government was devastated however because the bombs were being sent to prominent business owners and politicians. One such bomb exploded on the doorstep of the U.S Attorney
Following the confessions of the multiple Americans on trial for treason and revealing the United States’ government secrets, McCarthyism was born. Senator McCarthy was so focused on keeping communism out of the United States; he had government officials and Hollywood’s “A” list interrogated to see if they supported communism and to see if they were Russian spies. I mean, even the wealthiest of them all at the time couldn’t get around these interrogations. Also, Senator McCarthy had full support of J. Edger Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Intelligence at that time in history. In Salem in 1962, power struggling leaders wanting to disperse of
In the 1950's, Communism grew and tension began to increase between the United States and Communist countries such as Russia and China; in addition, Russia attained a nuclear weapon. Many Jews favored the Communist's beliefs and began supporting Communism. As a result, President Harry Truman created the "Truman Doctrine" declaring that members of the Communist party that were in the government must be fired from their jobs. Immediately following the "Truman Doctrine", the Senate passed a bill that allowed Communists to be thrown in jail and forced to give names of other members of the Communist party, and interrogation of the suspected Communists was called the "McCarthy Hearings". Arthur Millers friend Elia Kazan, suspected communist, was
In order to stop communism the United States did very unconstitutional acts and made many enemies with our cause. When North Korea tried to take over South Korea, the U.S. immediately saw a threat to the Truman doctrine’s man principle and sent troops over to Korea to fight and stop communism. When we began to help, the United States soon realized we were fighting in a style of war we never faced before. Many of the soldiers sacrificed their lives because America was very eager to contain communism any way we could. We gained control after the deaths of over 60,000 of our men were killed in the line of duty.
Attorney General Elliot Richardson appointed a special prosecutor, Archibald Cox, to investigate the entire affair; Cox and his staff began to uncover widespread evidence of political espionage by the Nixon reelection committee, illegal wiretapping of citizens by the administration, and corporate contributions to the Republican party in return for political favors (Columbia, 6th Edition). In July 1973, it was revealed that presidential conversations in the White House had been tape-recorded since 1971; Cox sued Nixon to obtain the tapes, and Nixon responded by ordering Richardson to fire him (Columbia, 6th Edition). Richardson resigned instead, and his assistant, William Ruckelshaus, also refused and was himself fired. Solicitor General Robert Bork finally fired Cox in what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre (Columbia, 6th Edition). In July 1974, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that such recordings were not privileged and Nixon announced his resignation knowing he would face impeachment if he did not.
However, Adolph Hitler’s Germany and Mussolini’s Italy, and Stalin’s Soviet Union threatened American democracy. World War II brought on new challenges for the FBI. As Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin, conquered Europe, the American Depression continued. The Depression provided the opportune time for radicalism in the United States as it did in Europe. European Fascists had their counterparts and supporters in the United States in the German-American Bund, Silver Shirts, and similar groups.