Shara Scott-Smith Shara Scott-Smith 1 Geology 10 – Prof. Mark Renner Formal Plan for Research Report June 9, 2013 A. Phenomenon or Trend: Coastal and beach erosion in California has been significant. B. Thesis/Argument: Coastal and beach erosion in California due to human use has impacted California’s coastlines severely. Continued excessive beach use causes excessive erosion and sea level rising, which in turn impacts human residential areas, wildlife habitats, economy, and resources. C. Preposed Title of Report: Coastal and Beach Erosion of California, the Cause and Effect Shara Scott-Smith 2
Currents are the ocean’s constant flow of water that is pushed on by either the wind or from tides that are caused by the moon’s gravitational field. Currents can occur along coasts, and sometimes only affect small areas. A longshore current is caused when waves strike the beach at an angle. The front part of the wave hits the shallow water first and slow down. Rip currents are a dangerous effect of longshore currents.
Normal conditions, before El Nino events occur, strong trade winds move surface waters westward. As this occurs the water becomes warmer. When water becomes warmer it causes the air to rise and cool causing torrential rainfall. When El Nino occurs there a warm upper ocean layer, which is poor in nutrients and a cold lower ocean layer, which is rich in nutrients. The cold water is brought when the surface current flows westward in a process known as upwelling.
I will explain the physical geography of the surrounding water and land. When understanding in some detail the geography behind the waves at Maverick there are many complicated things to take into consideration; for instance tide measurements, wind speed, isobar charts, atmospheric weather maps, etc. In the book, “Maverick’s: The Story of Big Wave Surfing,” the author Matt Warshaw explains that the Maverick’s begin as an atmospheric dimple in the North Pacific (Warshaw 2000). In which it grows into a low-pressure system, the corkscrewing union between an arctic air mass and a warmer ocean-heated air mass (Warshaw 2000, p. 43). Then the low-pressure system matures along the west-to-east atmospheric highway also known as jet stream; then a storm will move slowly along the jet stream that would produce the large waves (Warshaw 2000).
This same method can be used in our study. Most of the essential nutrients flow downstream, and the organisms naturally follow their food source (Davis, 1989). Understanding the affects of water velocity on sediment depths in streams can help to understand certain organisms’ habitats and environmental needs. Furthermore, understanding sediment flow down streams can help in areas where water
Beaches are the result of wave action by which waves or currents move sand or other loose sediments of which the beach is made as these particles are held in suspension. Alternatively, sand may be moved by saltation (a bouncing movement of large particles). Beach materials come from erosion of rocks offshore, as well as from headland erosion and slumping producing deposits of scree. Some of the whitest sand in the world, along Florida's Emerald Coast, comes from the erosion of quartz in the Appalachian Mountains. A coral reef offshore is a significant source of sand particles.
The PH is directly related to the algae consisting in the water. Effects of the water quality in the creek can be affected by soil entering the creek building up silt; this can have a major effect on the water quality impacting the algal development. The PH level in the soil is affected by multiple things, one being the main reason which is lead litter. The soil PH can be altered by
A distinct correlation between the pattern of ocean currents and the air circulation above them can be made. The major ocean currents are wind-driven currents, though some ocean currents result from density and salinity variations of water. The subtropical high pressure cells are responsible for many of the Earth's great ocean currents. Examine the location of the subtropical highs and then place their position on the map of world ocean currents. See any correlation?
This is the wave motion that is so damaging to structures. The third general type of earthquake wave is called a surface wave, reason being is that its motion is restricted to near the ground surface. Such waves correspond to ripples of water that travel across a lake. Surface waves in earthquakes can be divided into two types. The first is called a Love wave.
Technology and scientific advances, however, brought about an awareness of the need to examine this relationbship more closely and improve it – to the advantage of both organism and environment which includes physical factors called abiotic factors. Abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical factors or components in the biosphere, which affect ecosystems. The abiotic factors include sunlight, air, temperature, pressure, mountain slope, soil, rainfall, land drainage, and atmosphere. These environmental factors interact with one another. For example, soil can be affected by heavy rains or floods.