Sdfgsdfg Essay

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[pic]Name Class Date DNA TECHNOLOGY STUDY GUIDE (14.3 + CH 15) 14.3 Studying the Human Genome Lesson Summary Manipulating DNA Since the 1970s, techniques have been developed that allow scientists to cut, separate, and replicate DNA base-by-base. Using these tools, scientists can read the base sequences in DNA from any cell. Restriction enzymes cut DNA into smaller pieces, called restriction fragments, which are several hundred bases in length. Each restriction enzyme cuts DNA at a different sequence of bases. Gel electrophoresis separates different-sized DNA fragments by placing them at one end of a porous gel, then applying an electrical voltage. The electrical charge moves the DNA. Using dye-labeled nucleotides, scientists can stop replication at any point along a single DNA strand. The fragments can then be separated by size using gel electrophoresis and “read,” base-by-base. The Human Genome Project was a 13-year international effort to sequence all 3 billion base pairs in human DNA and identify all human genes. The project was completed in 2003. They used “shotgun sequencing,” which uses a computer to match DNA base sequences. The Human Genome Project identified genes associated with many diseases and disorders. From the project came the new science of bioinformatics, the creation and use of databases and other computing tools to manage data. Bioinformatics launched genomics, the study of whole genomes. The human genome project pinpointed genes and associated particular sequences in those genes with numerous diseases and disorders. It also found that the DNA of all humans matches base-for-base at most sites, but can vary at 3 million sites. The 1000 Genomes Project, launched in 2008, will catalogue the variation among 1000 people. Manipulating DNA For Questions 1–4, write True if the statement is true. If the

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