Following, the author will illustrate how innovation plays an important role in this process. First, scientists in UK contributed a lot to the development of natural science, techniques and laid foundation for Physics, Biology, Mathematics and Biomedicines. Newton’s three laws of mechanism is the basement of modern physics and natural science. Till now, his laws are of indispensable significance in physics, engineering and other walks of life. Darwin’s biological evolutionism gave a revolutionary explanation of origin of human and animal.
Frankenstein was produced in a time when there was a belief that science and technology would change the world, but there were grave questions about the socio-economic impact of industrialisation. Some feared for the nature of humanity. There are many contextual issues in Frankenstein that reflect the social concerns, disruption and responsibility, or the lack of. Romanticism, the gothic period and the industrial revolution influenced Frankenstein. The central focus of Romanticism was on the link between man and nature, with the concept of nature prevalent not only in Frankenstein but also in Blade Runner.
Frankenstein depicts the ambition to use science to usurp God, influenced by the eighteenth century Enlightenment movement (encouraging reasoning to understand the universe), advancements in science in the nineteenth century and the concept of restoration of life through electricity, known as 'galvanism'. Shelley's social context was focused on knowledge and self glory - concepts Shelley opposed. Frankenstein is a didactic warning against growing dependence on science. It highlights consequences of over-reliance on technology, suggesting attempts to usurp God will result in outcomes beyond human control. The Gothic genre allows the purpose to reach the audience.
People started to think and question was there more than just a God and that’s where science was introduced. People started to use rational ways of thinking to explain things that happened. Science has been used to develop different parts in society such as medicine and technology that we use in everyday life. But it has also caused problems such as pollution and global warming. Science has cognitive power, it can allow us to explain, predict and control the world.
The Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment Secularization: religion became a matter of private conscience rather than public policy. Prompted a search for non religious explanations for political authority and natural phenomena. Art, politics, theories, and science broke from religious bonds Baroque: originated in Italy, curves, exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, artistic sensationalism Scientific Method: combines experimental observation and mathematical deduction. The use of this led to breakthroughs of Isaac Newton being able to explain the motion of planets, and everyday objects. this method became viewed as the solution for all social problems.
This change was brought about by a number of factors such as: 1) Industrial revolution 2) Political revolution 3) Growth of a market economy In an effort to understand the change and explain it from a scientific perspective, sociology developed as a science. The key figures who analysed the societal changes taking place were, among others, Durkheim; Marx; Weber. They later became known as the founding fathers. Durkheim, a French writer was the first professor of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in France. He saw sociology as a new science.
Revolutionaries developed political and social ideologies based on the Enlightenment values of reason, analysis and science, instead of religion, dogma and superstition. During the 1790’s, profound political changes created new and unique ways to adapt to a modern secular society. New constitutional governments were formed in response to mass political uprisings when French citizens rejected monarchical absolutism and forced the Catholic Church to become subordinate to the government. Scientific advancements and industrialization, both contributed to the growing secularization of European society. British industrial workers adopted non-religious political ideologies by creating organizations like the “Chartists,” which protected workers and lobbied for universal suffrage.
There is much debate over whether psychology is considered to be a science or not. So what is science? Science is generally defined as the knowledge gained through observations of the world via scientific methods, rather than what we believe to be true of the world (American Psychological Association, 2007). Psychology is widely recognised as the study of mental processes and behaviour (Wickens 2000). From this outline psychology could clearly be defined as a science as it involves gaining a deeper understanding of humans within the world.
Some humanist believed that after the Fall of Adam, God left the world incomplete and man had to restore his work. They believed that they should use their knowledge to restore nature and improve the human race (Olson 1). There were many important discoveries made during the Renaissance period. One important discovery was the discovery of America in 1492 which revealed new plants, animals, and people. This discovery made people want to learn more about their world (Centers of Inventions ?).