Lab 4 – Energy Sources and Alternative Energy Experiment 1: The Effects of Coal Mining |Table 1: pH of Water Samples | |Water Sample |Initial pH |Final pH (24-48 hours) | |Pyrite |6 |6 | |Activated Carbon |6 |7 | |Water |6 |6 | POST LAB QUESTIONS Develop hypotheses predicting the effect of pyrite and coal on the acidity of water? Pyrite hypothesis = I would guess ph would be lower. Coal hypothesis = I would guess ph would be higher. Based on the results of your experiment, would you reject or accept each hypothesis that you produced in question 1? Explain how you determined this.
The steam brings hydrogen sulphide gas to the surface and pollutes the air unless controls are instituted. 2. Water contains many salts and minerals capable of causing water pollution. 3. The earth in a geothermal field may subside as the water is pumped out.
Add 1 mL of deionized water to the small test tube containing the precipitate and mix it and centrifuge it for 60 seconds. Then, add the supernatant into the boiling test tube and repeat this step one more time with another 1 mL of deionized water. Acquire a pair of metal test tube holders and heat the boiling test tube to evaporate the water for 15 minutes. Let is cool after and weigh it. Then, calculate a percent yield of zinc iodide and write a balanced chemical equation and determine the limiting
Using a Buchner funnel, a hose, and a suction flask we created a vacuum filtrator which we used to help remove the remaining liquid on the copper so that we may make a more precise measurement of the mass of the remaining copper. Our final mass of copper was .7951 grams. Results and Discussion: Initial Mass of Cu: .25 grams When we mixed the 5 ml of 6 molar HNO3 the copper had disappeared, indicating it had been used in the reaction. The copper had undergone a single replacement reaction and a decomposition reaction. Initial equation: Cu(s) + HNO3(aq) -> Cu(NO3)2(aq) + NO2(g) +H2O(l) Balanced: Cu(s) + 4HNO3(aq) -> Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NO2(g) + 2H2O(l) The copper had replaced the Hydrogen in the HNO3 and the NO3 had also broken down into NO2 and O2- allowing the H+ to bond with it and create
Course # Student name / Names of members of group Date: Exp # : Estimating the effects of acid rain Introduction: Precipitation that measures a pH value below 5.6 is generally considered as acid rain. Burning fossil fuels is the main reason for the elevated levels of gaseous oxides in a polluted atmosphere that in-turn forms acid rain. Gaseous oxides such as that of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus could dissolve in water to form an acidic solution. A generalized reaction sequence on the formation of acid rain is as follows; One of the determinants of clean water in the natural environment is its alkalinity. Alkalinity can be defined as the capacity to neutralize acids.
The consequence of climate change is serious. It will cause sea level rises，more flooding and stronger storm. Secondly, the shortage of fossil fuels is also a big problem, which is means fossil fuels are finite and non-renewable. If people cannot use them reasonably and economically, fossil fuels will be used up very soon. Klass model is a good illustration of this problem and it assumes a continuous compound rate and computes fossil fuel reserve depletion times for oil, coal and gas of approximately 35, 107 and 37 years, respectively (Shahriar & Erkan, 1).
The following data were obtained when a sample of barium chloride hydrate was analyzed as described in the Procedure section. Calculate (a) the mass of the hydrate, (b) the mass of water lost during heating, and (c) the percent water in the hydrate. Mass of empty test tube 18.42 g Mass of test tube and hydrate (before heating) 20.75 g Mass of test tube and anhydrous salt (after heating) 20.41 g. Mass of the Hydrate is 2.33g. Loss (H2O) is 0.34g. Percent H2O in Hydrate is equal 0.34/2.33=14.6% 3.
Unfortunately, the activity of burning or combusting fossil fuels releases various kinds of hazardous substances and pollutants which eventually leads to changes in the environment; such as climate change, global warming, and changes in environmental health. Let us start with the change in climate or climate change. For over the past 150 years, the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil have caused the concentrations of heat-trapping "greenhouse gases" to increase significantly in our atmosphere. These gases prevent heat from escaping to space, somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse. It would change our climate, but it would not bring us close to the level of uninhabitable Venus.
“The increase in the mean temperature of the earth due to excessive emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen.” ( Green) These extra gases are making it hard for heat to escape the Earth’s atmosphere resulting in warmer temperatures. Here is a model of the Greenhouse Effect retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html. Ethical Issues on Global Warming There are many causes of Global Warming to include Carbon Dioxide from power plants, cars, airplanes, and from buildings. “In 2002 about 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions stem from the burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity generation.”(Ayres) 93% of electricity generations is produced by coal. 33% of the carbon dioxide comes from vehicles.
Since acid rain has very high emission rates, some attempts have been made to try to reduce the pollution from the rain. Coal that has high sulfur levels gets washed before it’s burned to make electricity, and the sulfur dioxide that’s made when coal burns is sometimes removed during the burning of the coal, by adding powdered limestone to the combustion chamber. This removes about half of the sulfur dioxide from the coal. The rest is removed by “scrubbing” the reaction gas with Lime (CaO) and water. When acid rain falls, it sometimes raises the levels of acids in certain soils, removing nutrients from the soil that helps plants grow.