The oesophagus extends from the pharynx and behind the trachea to the stomach. It is a muscular tube that uses a series of contractions, known as peristalsis, to push food through into the stomach. The stomach is a hollow organ that has strong muscular walls. It holds food while it is mixed with enzymes and continuing the process of food being broken down into a usable form. The stomach secretes acid and powerful enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food.
When we eat our food it is broken down into nutrients then absorbed into the bloodstream, our body then discards the indigestible parts of the food, this process is called digestion. The oesophagus is a tube that passes through the chest and connects the mouth to the stomach. The stomach leads to the small intestine, which is a narrow long tube from which most of the food absorption into the bloodstream takes place. The reason why we need to digest our food is because we need various molecules from the food we eat. We need carbohydrates for energy; we need amino acids to build protein.
The first function of the digestive system is the intake of food; the mouth is responsible for this as this is where food enters the body. Enzymes inside the mouth serve two purposes, one is to kill bacteria and two, begin digestion. Salivary Amylase begins to breakdown starch, carbohydrate in our food. Lingual lipase is an enzyme that stays neutral in the mouth but is active when it reaches the stomach. You should note that enzymes are like tiny biochemical machines that disassemble large macromolecules like proteins, lipids carbohydrates into smaller molecules, the breakdown of these foods continue throughout the digestive system until they are ready to enter the blood stream by absorption.
Blood glucose levels drop again after eating and the Lateral hypothalamus is activated (which initiates feeding) and we become hungry and the process starts again. There are several neurotransmitters in the body which are also involved in eating regulation. Ghrelin is a hormone which is released when the stomach is empty so it triggers eating. The second most important hormone is leptin and this is released from adipocytes, and the more fat a person has the more leptin is released and it acts as a satiety signal so stops food intake. Cummings et al (2004) did a study into the effects of ghrelin on people.
Discuss the importance of teeth in human nutrition Teeth perform mechanical digestion thus increasing the surface area of food for salivary amylase to work and for the enzymes of the stomach and small intestine to work more efficiently 2. Describe how food passes through the esophagus Food is pushed down the esophagus to the stomach through the process of peristalsis. Wave-like contractions alternate between contraction and relaxation to push the food through the entire digestive tract from the esophagus through the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. 3. Why would the enzymes in your mouth not work in your stomach and the enzymes in your stomach not work in your mouth?
Trypsin is a serine protease found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyses proteins. Trypsin is produced in the pancreas. I'm thinking as it's an enzyme, it's most likely to be denatured at high temperatures, but if the temperature is at it's optimum then it would speed the rate of reaction, in this case hydrolysis and form a greater amount of product per unit time. * Trypsin is an enzyme which breaks down protein * If Trypsin is added to milk it will break down the milk, turning it from cloudy to translucent protease enzyme that is made in the pancreas and used to digest proteins so that the body can absorb them into the blood. The pancreatic duct in people who have cystic fibrosis frequently becomes blocked, reducing or preventing the release of pancreatic enzyme into the small intestine One enzyme can be used as many times over.
Human Digestive Summary Sci 241 February 6 2015 Dr. Conner Human Digestive Summary In this essay we will explain the process it takes the human body to digest food. By discussing the following the factors which affect the amount of time it takes for foods to travel through the digestive tract. How does digestion occur in each part of the digestive tract, how protein, fats, and carbohydrates break down in the digestive system, and what foods help with the process of digestion. We must first establish the order of digestion. We have the mouth and teeth to start which include our salivary glands.
While he is chewing his food, the salivary glands will begin to produce saliva and amylase, produced by enzymes. This will in turn break down some of the carbohydrates. Also the chewing motion will break down the food and the tongue will form it into a small bolus for easy swallowing. The
It begins in the mouth, where food is taken into the body and chewed to break it into smaller pieces, then amylase – a digestive enzyme produced in the body – is added to it through human saliva. Amylase is a carbohydralase and breaks down the carbohydrates within a food. This allows the body to take some of the nutrients from the food straight away. Once the food is swallowed it enters the pharynx before it is transported to the oesophagus, the pharynx converts the food into bolus. Bolus is chewed food which had been broken down with various enzymes produced in the mouth, it is much easier to digest than food which has just been chewed.
In the body there are two main body systems one being the circulatory system and the other being the digestive system. The digestive system has four main stages these are ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination. Ingestion starts at the mouth where the food enters the mouth and is chewed using the teeth in the mouth. The salivary glands in the mouth produce saliva which also helps to break food down and makes it easier to swallow. Once the food has been swallowed is goes down the oesophagus where the involuntary muscle movements help push the food to the stomach.