THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (1750-1825) THE CLASSICAL PERIOD OF MUSIC 1) TIME OF GREAT MUSICAL EXPERIMENTATION AND DISCOVERY 2) CENTERS AROUND ACHIEVEMENTS OF VIENNESE SCHOOL A) HAYDN B) MOZART C) BEETHOVEN 3) THREE CHALLENGING PROBLEMS A) EXPLORE MAJOR-MINOR SYSTEM TO ITS FULLEST B) TO PERFECT A LARGE FORM OF ABSOLUTE INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC (THE SONATA CYCLE) C) TO DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ITS (SONATA CYCLE) VARIOUS TYPES 1) SONATA 2) CONCERTO SYMPHONY 3) ELEMENTS OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD 1) ELEGANT AND LYRICAL MELODIES A) ELEGANT AND LYRICAL MELODIES B) CLEAR-CUT CADENCES 2) THE HARMONIES THAT SUSTAINED THESE MELODIES A) FIRMLY ROOTED IN THE KEY RHYTHM 3) A) MUSIC WAS IN EITHER 2, 3, 4, OR 6/8 B) STAYED IN RHYTHMIC STYLE IT BEGAN WITH 4) FORM A) UNFOLDED
Gradual changes in dynamics. (Pg. 302 – 303).” Figure 1: a standard set up for a baroque orchestra from “http://dandanmusic.weebly.com” Figure 2: The typical arrangement of the early classical orchestra from “http://dandanmusic.weebly.com” Listening to Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, it is as lively a
Music was an essential part of civic, religious, and courtly life in the Renaissance. The rich interchange of ideas in Europe, as well as political, economic, and religious events in the period 1400–1600 led to major changes in styles of composing, methods of disseminating music, new musical genres, and the development of musical instruments. The most important music of the early Renaissance was composed for use by the church—polyphonic (made up of several simultaneous melodies) masses and motets in Latin for important churches and court chapels. By the end of the sixteenth century, however, patronage was split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches and courts, wealthy amateurs, and music printing—all were sources of income for composers. The early fifteenth century was dominated initially by English and then Northern European composers.
The majority of these songs are love, in all combinations of joy and pain. Later in the late middle ages began Ars nova which refers to a musical style which was big and France and few other countries. The music of the ars nova differed from the preceding era in several ways. There was a greater independence of rhythm, and Secular music gained polyphonic sophistication which was previously only found in sacred music. The Ars nova paved the way for new music in the renaissance era.
Theme two starts at about 55 seconds and takes us off with a happy, major, melodic feeling that ends around 1:30. In traditional sonata form, the first two themes are usually repeated. As you can tell, that is exactly what Beethoven did. Soon after the repeat of the first two themes, we move into the development at around the 3:00 mark. In the beginning of the development, it gives you a hint of the first theme, and moves into a more minor sound at around 3:18, taking us off into a random dark sounding harmonic tangent.
Outline the major musical development of the classical period and the main characteristics of the classical style. Main characteristics of the classical style: Contrast of mood - Mood in classical music may change gradually or suddenly. Masters like Haydn and Beethoven were able to impart unity and logic to music of wide emotional range. Rhythm - In Classical music, there is a flexibility of rhythm. A classical composition has a range of rhythmic patterns.
The first movement of Beethoven's 1st symphony is in sonata form made up of an exposition including a 1st and 2nd subject, transition and codetta motifs from which will be explored often in unrelated keys within the development section. The development can be seen to be divided into 4sections. The 1st section of the development (bar 110-135) features rapid modulation through a cycle of 5ths. At bar 110 following a descending G7 in the 2nd time bar, the key suddenly moves to an A major chord in its 1st inversion (a tertiary relation to the tonic key of C). The initial melody idea in the development is the dotted quaver-semiquaver motif taken from bar 14-15 of the exposition section.
Primarily the Sonata from can be looked as a innovation, or an advancement of binary form (A-B-A) which was common in French dance movements. “The origins of the ‘simultaneous returns are more complex. A return of the opening Music in the tonic was common following a ‘Trio’, and in the da capo aria, the Italian opera overture, the concerto and the simple aria. Sonata form transformed the division within the second part of rounded binary from into a return to the original theme in the tonic.” (Webster) Writing in a piece in Sonata Form for an 18th century composer it is important to remember there are not specific rules to this form, the structure that is
There were different forms of concerto as well. Concerto grosso is when there are multiple soloists. Yet another genre that emerged during this time was the cantata; a work intended to be sung during a worship service. These arose mostly in the late Baroque period. The use of overtures was very popular at the
The last piece was Amen! by Frank Ticheli. On the other hand, the symphonic band performed six pieces: “Hoe Down” from Rodeo by Aaron Copland, Puszta: Four Gypsy Dances by Jan Van der Roost, Irish Tune from Country Derry and Shepherd’s Hey by Percy Grainger, Amazing Grace by Frank Ticheli, and Africa Ceremony, Song and Ritual by Robert W. Smith, respectively. All of the pieces played both of the wind ensemble and symphonic band were written in Contemporary Period. Saucedo’s Into the Clouds!