Rather than having an absolute authority, Rousseau believed in the general will of the people and popular sovereignty. In “Leviathan,” Hobbes argues for the existence of and man’s need for an absolute authority. Without the order of a government, he described “the life of man [as] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” (Hobbes 2007, 37). Defining the state of nature for the experience of humanity in the absence of a governing body, he depicts it as a harsh and hostile condition. According to Hobbes, in the state of nature “men live without a common power to keep them all in awe” so they conduct a war of “every man, against every man” (Hobbes 2007, 37).
Or perhaps, there is nothing wrong with the state of nature; but the real problem is based on the want for absolutism. To begin with, Thomas Hobbes argues that the state of nature is ‘the worst possible situation in which men can find themselves. It is the state of perpetual and unavoidable war’. Hobbes has described the state of nature as being "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short", this is the description of the state of mankind. This pessimistic view of the state of nature declares humans as being self interested.
Explore the concerns Wordsworth expresses about his contemporary society in ‘The World Is Too Much With Us’ and ‘Composed Upon Westminster Bridge’. In ‘The world is too much with us’ Wordsworth explores the idea of Man being ‘out of tune’ with nature due to our obsessive pursuits for material goods. This, highlighted by the French revolution, has been a huge cause for concern for Wordsworth’s contemporary society. Wordsworth’s angry and sarcastic tone adds to this concern. This contrasts with ‘Composed upon Westminster Bridge’ which illustrates the idea that when we account for nature, it can coexist with man.
Raising thought-provoking questions, issues, and ideas, poetry builds bridges that allow man to transverse great expanses of controversy and debate. The poet, a master of words, shares his visions and perspectives through these pieces of literature; giving life to the poem. I believe good poetry is a form of expression that celebrates revolutionary ideas which provide a broader frame of reference to its readers. The English poet, John Keats, reaffirms this opinion stating, “poetry should be great and unobtrusive, a thing which enters into one's soul, and does not startle it or amaze it with itself, but with its subject” (Poetry Quotes). Depending on the traditional values and principles of the time, poetry should be progressive, allowing for newer ideals and a newer generation.
Wordsworth’s poem, “The World is Too Much with us”, illustrates how too much focus on materialistic endeavors results a horrific transgression against nature because people become obsessed with “getting and spending” that they have in effect so calcified their hearts to the beauty of nature that “it moves us not” . Wordsworth firmly believed that humanity was giving up its soul - and individuality - to the pursuit of money. "We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!" Thus nature becomes dead to us as we have become so out of touch with beauty and life itself. We are so preoccupied with our worldly affairs-including making money and spending it that we weaken our ability to perceive what really matters.
Modernists believe that life is purposeful; postmodernists believe that life is meaningless or that meaning is purely subjective and relative. Modernists believe one can define morality whereas postmodernists believe morality is relative. Modernists are analytical whereas postmodernists are rhetorical. Modern art is characterized by simplicity, elegance and streamlined design but postmodern art is decorative and elaborate. Modernist philosophy is determined by cause and effect but postmodernists believe in chance.
Hobbes is well known author of “Leviathan”, and Locke is the author of “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.” Both men address the characteristics of man, natural law, and the purpose and structure of government. These two theorists have very different opinions on the characteristics of man. Hobbes sees man as being evil, whereas Locke views man in a much more optimistic light. They both agree that all men are equal according to natural law, however their ideas on natural law differ greatly. Hobbes sees natural law as a state of war in which every man is an enemy to every man.
In his cutting critique of industrialization, modernization, and society as a whole, Henry David Thoreau explains the relationship between a man’s self and the revealing characteristics of nature as distinctly hindered by the distractions of society and technology. The encumbrances of an industrialized existence and the quest to obtain property force men to live dormant, unaware of the moral and spiritual growth that can be found in nature. Thoreau insists on a spiritual reconnection with the natural world, and alludes to a rebirth of self. He sets his own spirituality in the beauty, that is, actuality, of nature. Through several key metaphors, Thoreau asserts his views onto the reader’s, and dramatically introduces the imagery in his experiences as a contrast to the toil of a modern man.
God’s grandeur, the poem written by English catholic poet Gerard Manley Hopkins is considered as condemnation of industrial society. Gerard Manley Hopkins was a religious man and through this poem he has tried to maintain how industrial life has separated mankind from his god, nature and spiritual aspects of life. This essay is going to argue how the poet has made this point and condemned the non spiritual materialistic industrial life. Hopkins believes god’s glamour is everywhere (line 1) and to grasp this beauty, mankind should put efforts, for it is hidden inside any subject just as the useful oil inside the fruit which oozes after being crushed(lines 3 and 4).In line four poet claims mankind does not recognise god’s rod of power and greatness, he also believes human takes advantage and occupies all these gifts of god for his own interest, pointed in sixth line as “And all is seared with trade...” , maintaining the idea that in this industrialized life people have forgotten god’s position and have become apart from spiritual aspects of life whilst they are using his creations to make benefits. Poet objects industrialized life through lines five to eight.
Humanists men and women who disagreed with this theory of pleasure leading one to Hell, and attempted to wrench the focus of life away from the heavens. They believed that emphasis should be placed on enjoying and appreciating human life rather than living to please God. Humanists challenged the Church’s teachings through the mediums of art and literature. Humanists, such as artist Michelangelo Buonarroti created artworks that inspired the greater community to allow themselves to cease fearing God, and to seek pleasure and enjoy their life on Earth