They perceived threats to security; this led to war and then increased the length of border. The difference between their expansions was that Imperial Rome built its army from citizen-farmers, due to the conquest Rome had many slaves. Han Chine had a military at their disposal to enlarge the empire. Han China had conquered many lands but unlike Imperial Rome, Han China did not have slaves as a result of their growing territory. In order to work in the office of Imperial Rome he had to serve 10 years as a solider; while, Han China picked the upper class through the family.
Classical Rome and Han China had a complex centralized government to control their people. Both civilizations had a well organized bureaucracy; however, Han was based on Confucian beliefs, while Rome was founded on laws and a legal code like the 12 Tables. The government would tax the people 5% of their harvested crops due to the fact that agriculture was the base of the economy. Rome tax its people to maintain land though Han taxed the people for the soldiers. The government would expand as a result of political stability, military strength and advanced urban growth.
The caste system which was a part of their religion mostly gave order to the land. However, both empires were ruled by emperors which benefitted each significantly. Even though they differed, they both had great leaders that expanded their countries by conquest. Mauryan Emperor is seen as the greatest Indian Emperor while Rome had many great emperors like Augustus and Vespasian. Mauryan expanded the Central Asian country as many of the great leaders of Rome did.
The years between 1792 and 1850 were a crucial period for both the British and Chinese empires; Britain expanded to become the greatest maritime empire while China, which had been the greatest land mass empire, became a shadow of its former self as the two fought for supremacy and control of trade. As Britain was a relatively small nation, its empire was by necessity outward looking. Characterised by a series of informal settlement colonies, economic policy was the key to expansion and it focussed on trade relationships between the metropole and peripheries; these were supported by a strong bureaucracy and powerful naval fleet. Cultural ideology had a role to play, but it could be argued that it was never as important. On the other hand, the autarkic Chinese empire was formal, insular, economically self-sufficient and relied heavily on both bureaucracy and an ethnocentric ideology to sustain itself.
Once the Mongols took over, they changed many of the political boundaries. With the Mongol’s high value for trade, it was only fitting to rule lands included in Silk Road trade. They overtook places like parts of China, India, Europe, and the Middle East. By the highest point of their rule, and the Silk Road, The Mongol Empire controlled the largest land empire to date. Over time, the Mongols most likely conquered the better part of the land around the Silk Road because they valued trade.
The conquest of certain civilizations lead to new ideas being brought in by the conquerors, and this lead to a much larger surplus, larger than ever before. Along with the arrival of surplus-enhancing technology, the smelting of iron also appeared. Before, copper and bronze had been used, but had proved to be only accessible to the wealthy and made poor tools, and weapons, too. Iron ore was much more abundant than copper, and with the skillful workings of the blacksmiths, “the effect [it had] on agriculture was massive,” (Harman 46). By the 7th century BC, new civilizations that were based on the new technologies that came around were on the rise.
The Ming (1368 - 1644) came earlier. It is also often seen by Chinese people as being more Chinese, since it overthrew the Yuan dynasty, which had imposed Mongolian rule on China, and was composed of ethnic Han. The Qing dynasty succeeded the Ming, and the ruling family was Manchurian - a culture that Chinese often saw as barbarian. The Manchurians, like the Mongols, have origins as invaders of China, although they lived in China longer and have become more 'assimilated' culturally than the Mongols. Ming China, in its early years, was undoubtedly the most powerful and wealthiest nation on Earth.
All payments went towards the king, this would've also made the Earls not feel powerful enough, especially Harold Godwin who was seen as the most powerful man in England, but theoretically he wasn’t. However the Economy was well governed because the trade increased, which encouraged both the growth of towns and foreign contacts, this demonstrates that England were still involved in trade, which was good for the economy. However the economy was not very well developed especially compared to the Byzantine Empire and Muslim world. Those economies were massive, especially when compared to England’s. Overall I believe that the economy for pre-Conquest England as well- governed to an extent as the King did have large control, he did control this well, but he may have been seen as too powerful where the government is concerned.
Another key reason behind the fall of the Republic was the influx of slaves and money, which the new found conquering brought to Rome. Of equal importance was the individualism which arose in government which allowed Pompey and more like him to seek individual power rather than to work for the benefit of the Republic. A slightly indirect, but nevertheless crucial factor behind the fall of the Republic was the way in which the Roman Plebeians were not appeased to be kept docile and therefore the deep undercurrents rose to the surface and allowed tribunes and wide pleasing senators such as Flacchus and the Gracchae to rise to power with the newly emboldened working classes supporting them and through this the rise of violent politics. Three
These waves of progress allowed opportunity for major growth. Encouraged by these new strengths, nations sought to expand not only within their borders, but also to revamp their overseas empires and look for new benefits in far off lands. These nations began to feel superior, so they colonize and took control, by military force, international pressure, or economic, influence, of resource-rich but weak countries beneficial to their economic and national expansion. Strategic positioning was also a reason for Imperialism. Great Britain sought control of Egypt to safeguard the route to their flourishing empire in India.