Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
This essay sets out to discuss the physiological consequences of external stressors on the body, with particular attention to the impact that they have on the Nervous, Endocrine and Cardiovascular systems. External stressors could be described as any physical or emotional strain such as those brought on by fear, exercise, illness, negative relationships or poor living conditions (UMMC, 2011) The human body is naturally equipped with a built in mechanism which provides a biochemical reaction that adapts and responds to stress, and this is referred to as the ‘Fight or Flight Response’ (Harari & Legge, 2001: 75). The two main controllers of the stress response are the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) and the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis. Responding to biochemical and environmental demands, both these systems work together in tandem via a feedback loop and are responsible for ensuring timely control and activation of physiological responses and maintenance of homeostasis throughout the body (Tortora & Derrickson, 2012: 713-714). The first stage of the stress response occurs when the hypothalamus in the brain detects stress and switches on the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) to induce a rush of adrenaline.
Through apolipoprotein C-II, the mature chylomicrons activate lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme found on the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacyglycerol (glycerol covalently bonded to three fatty acids). Triacyglycerol releases glycerol along with fatty acids found in the chylomicrons. Fatty acids and glycerol can be absorbed in muscle, peripheral tissues, and adipose, for energy as well as storage. The hydrolyzed chylomicrons become chylomicron remnants.
Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, controls blood sugar levels in the body. It is important to have a stable amount of glucose. If you have too much glucose (excess glucose) your body (pancreas) will increase the amount of insulin that is being made and will activate the enzymes which change glucose to glycogen. The glycogen then gets stored in the liver. Glucose levels should then return to normal.
DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRESS, ANXIETY, HABITS AND PHOBIAS AND DESCRIBE HOW YOU WOULD TREAT THESE ISSUES WITH HYPNOTHERAPY. Word Count 2154 Introduction Stress, anxiety, phobias and habits can all be related in some way or other. For instance, stress causes anxiety and vice versa. They are caused by fear and change. A habit can cause stress, such as when you try to stop a habit like smoking your anxiety increases leading to stress.
This is the brain’s way of preparing both body and mind to reduce the risk, known as the ‘fight or flight ‘response. When we perceive that we are in danger. Adrenaline is released into the blood stream preparing the muscles for action by making them tense. In our modern day to day life we create stress; we are surrounded by pressure, with little time to relax. This manifests into stress, Fear, anxiety and phobias with physical symptoms such as irregular heartbeat, muscle aches and tension and shortness of breath as well as many other symptoms.
Influence of Heredity and Hormones on Human Behavior The role of the endocrine system on the human body is to coordinate psychological reactions through the release of many different types of hormones. Hormones are released into the blood stream via glands and thus travel through-out the body. Hormones cause physiological changes in the body such as the on-set of puberty, and govern behaviors such as alertness, sleepiness and excitability. Hormones are also responsible for triggering such physiological reactions like desires, moods, stress and the body’s reaction to it, aggression, learning, emotions, and so on. There are many different glands located through out the human body.
Essay title: “Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and describe how you would treat these issues with hypnotherapy” This essay considers the common debilitating and inter-related neurotic conditions of stress, anxiety, phobias and habits and provides a generalized account as to how each may be treated through the ethical use of hypnotherapy. Stress is the name given to how we feel under pressure, is a natural reaction, a normal part of everyday life and in small quantities helpful in motivating us to react in certain situations. Faced with stressful or dangerous situations, the body produces hormones to induce the “fight or flight” instinct. Feelings of stress can be experienced as anger, frustration and anxiety. Anxiety can be apprehension or fear, which causes stress.
Insulin is a hormone that significantly contributes to weight gain (Hertzler & Kim, 2003). Insulin is a hormonal substance that is produced and dispersed within the body for regulation of blood sugar. The flow of blood sugar is regulated converting sugar into energy. The energy converted from the sugar by molecules is either needed immediately by the body or converted into fat cells for later use during times when the body needs more energy to function. A large buildup of fat cells within the body can contribute to weight gain (Eades & Eades 1996).
(MOXON et al 2003, P.110). When the ANS releases noradrenaline this allows two things to happen: - Release of fat and glucose from fat stores – provides energy. - Clots the blood at an increased rate – reduces blood loss if injured. Cannon argued that the ANS initiate the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline for the animal dealing with the stressor to be more responsive to dangerous situations (MOXON et al 2003, P.110). Most psychiatrists believe that the hypothalamus (region in the brain) is the ‘starting point for the stress response’.