Formative and Summative Assessment Reported by: Khrizell A. Lalata What is Assessment? 1. Assessment for learning is best described as a process by which assessment information is used by teachers to adjust their teaching strategies, and by students to adjust their learning strategies. 2. Assessment, teaching and learning are inextricably linked, as each informs the others.
Both authors agree that the supervisor in curriculum development main function is to make the curriculum visible. Glanz (2007) concurs with Starratt that the curriculum development supervisor must make the curriculum visible so that the main priority is to integrate theory and practice. Throughout the years, Glanz (2007) states that curriculum development and educational supervision appear to have been on separate paths and were previously viewed as contrasting functions. Starratt (2008) agrees that there presently appears to be a division between the role and function, which is evident not only in the roles within schools but also in the thinking, and theorizing about
Learners come to education with bits of specific former knowledge and skill related to the field at hand. In Norman's (1982) terms, three overlapping stages of learning are then distinguishable: the accretion of new information, and its chunking, elaboration, and connection to existing knowledge; its restructuring, through which new knowledge organizations are formed, usually to replace or reformulate old concepts and relations; and, finally, the tuning or adaptation and practice of knowledge structures in particular uses. In Anderson's (1985) skill development theory, the parallel phases are declarative knowledge acquisition, compilation or proceduralization, and automatization. Achieving the desired end states equips learners to think and
One assumes that students will be different after a unit of work has been taught. The question arises as to the degree of difference. Hence, measurement assessment, and evaluation are important to determine the degree of difference. Within this context, classroom instruction enables students to achieve intended learning outcomes. In so doing, the teacher becomes a predictor.
Behavioral and Cognitive Approaches Name Institutional Affiliation Historically, several theories have been developed to explain the manner in which human beings learn things. Among these theories are the cognitive and behavioral theories of learning. Both theories are based on various principles and have numerous elements in common. They are also wide-apart in some areas. This paper will provide the foundational principles of each theory, and will explain the similarities and differences between the two theories.
Researchers have tested and advanced his theories and many existing views in cognitive psychology are based on Piaget’s theories. Piaget anticipated that cognitive development and development of mental abilities, happens as we become accustomed to the altering world around us. He described adaption as the nonstop process of using the environment to learn and of learning to alter to changes that come about in the environment. He suggested that adaptation consists of two related process which he called assimilation and accommodation. These two ways are the processes in which we interconnect with the environment.
One is to provide the learner with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning observed. The other is to guide us where to look for solutions to practical problems. Theories fall under three main philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivist and constructivism. The following paper makes an attempt to define constructivism, show how the theory of constructivism guides teaching and learning and its implications on education. Constructivism Constructivism - whether as a mode of instruction or a school of thought on how the world is known by the observer - has a long and diverse history.
Interactions between elements happen differently with individuals (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009). Determinations regarding each individual’s concentration, maintenance, and response to processing styles toward retention and long- term memories can be studied. These types of interactions and studies into learning permits for identification of preferences, strengths, and modes of learning specific to an individual that effect psychological, environmental, social, physiological, and emotional factors (Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009). The purpose of this paper aids in evaluating and describing verbal learning, comparing, and contrasting paired associate, serial, and free recall learning, and exploring concepts of mnemonics within recalling verbal stimuli. Concept of Verbal Learning, Curve of Forgetting and Three Verbal Learning Methods Herman Ebbinghaus is associated with concepts of verbal learning regarding his work with memory.
The result of assessment and instruction format implemented by the teacher has a direct bearing on each other. If performance assessments are to address instructional decisions, they should meet the following criteria: 1. Assessments need to gauge and determine the desired learning results. 2. Assessments results are used to formulate instructional decisions and hence, should first satisfy and fulfill the purpose of assessment.
This is particularly important in these days of performance indicators and targets. There are various stages of Assessment: Figure 1.1: Assessment Process Initial Assessment: Initial assessment is carried out at the beginning of the course to determine the level of learners and their need and is often used to help place learners in appropriate learning programmes. It can be performed by the enrolment forms, learning agreement forms, individual profile forms, and individual learning plan forms. Diagnostic