Risorgimento Essay

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The political history of Italy was quite broad. The Greeks were the first to settle in Italy and established colonies in the southern part of the country and in Sicily. The sense of civilization appearing at that time was more than the sense political reality, since people only settle to survive. While the Greeks controlled the south the Gauls, or the Celtic people, ruled the north and the Po Valley. But the most important group to settle in Italy was the Etruscans. Because of their advanced civilization, the Etruscans were the only ones to establish political and cultural ideas before the Roman Empire. At the end of the Etruscans rule, Rome began a unification of Italy and established Latin to be the general language (Defusco). The Habsburg-Valois War that initiated by Henry II of France led to the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis signed between France and Spain in April 3, 1559 which led to the Spanish territorial control of Italy until the early eighteenth century. Ultimately, this stopped the 65 years of French attacks on the Italian states started with the invasion of Naples in 1494. Italy began to experience economic and social declines while the 16th century progressed. With the economic focus shifted from Mediterranean to the Atlantic, Italian states slowly lost their importance. Venice fought bitterly against the Ottoman Empire for the control of outposts in the eastern Mediterranean. Experiencing many martial triumphs in between, Venice fell to stagnation and economic decline. By 1713 AD, with the ignition of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713, culminating in the pass of the control of Italy from Spain to Austria. Again, angered by the rejection of the Italians, Cardinal Michael Friedrich von Althann, viceroy from 1722-1728, imposed for taxes which led to his downfall quickly. Althann’s attempt of establishing a state bank

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