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1. Unions: Are organization that define, promote, and fight for the collective interests and rights of workers or a group of workers in relation to employers but also in relation to the government, the media, and other social groups. Unionism came about due to the fundamental difference of interests between workers and employers. Unions essentially exist in order to fight and make sure that human rights are not broken or violated. There are two main types of unionism and they are: a) Business Unionism: The belief that worker and bosses have common interests, focusing on “getting the job done” and “a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay.” Business unions function to keep workers working and profit flowing smoothly into the pockets of business owners. The heart business union is the labor contract, under which workers labor for the profit of the bosses. Business unions believe in fair wage and work to ensure the best possible deal with management in terms of pay, pay raises, and benefits. Business union jobs pay better than non-union equivalents, reflecting on the power of collective bargaining. Business unionism essentially focuses on the interests of their own member in the workplace. b) Social Unionism: A concept in which unions look beyond immediate objectives and try to reform social conditions of the workers. In social unionism programs with regards to education, health, welfare, artistic, recreation, and citizenship are designed to attempt to satisfy the needs of members’ whole personalities. Social unionists believe that labor had an obligation to better the general society. Social unionism attempts to integrate workers, trade unions and the labor movement into a broader coalition for social and economic justice. Challenges for unions today: a) Changes in the macro-political economic contexts: * The shift to a post-industrial and knowledge based

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