Fistulas are abnormal connections between different parts of the intestine or another organ. The development of internal fistulas, may allow food to bypass areas of the bowel where absorption occurs. External fistulas can lead to drainage of bowel contents to the skin. Some fistulas may become infected and form abscesses, a life-threatening
This abnormal mucus can clog the airways which will lead to severe problems with breathing and bacterial infections in the lungs. These infections will cause an individual to cough and wheeze. Inflammation is caused as well. Over time, mucus buildup and infections result in permanent lung damage which includes the formation of scar tissue and cyst in the lungs. Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) located
Multiple Sclerosis is provoked by damage to the myelin sheath which is the protective covering that surrounds the nerve cells. When the sheath is damaged the nerve impulses may slow down or even stop. Inflammation is what causes the nerve damage. When the nervous system is attacked by its own immune cells, inflammation occurs. Repeated inflammation can occur along any area of the brain, spinal cord, or the optic nerve (PubMed Health 1747) (PubMed Health 1463).
"Pink eye" (conjunctivitis) is an inflammation and redness of the conjunctiva (the layer of blood vessels covering the white part of the eye). It can appear suddenly or overnight. Pink eye is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections and is a common ailment. Pink eye is commonly acquired through contact with contaminated objects like pillow cases, towels, books, others' make-up. These objects become contaminated through direct contact with infected eye discharge or from hands that were not properly washed after touching an infected eye.
Unit 6 Case Study: Zachary’s Story A. An ulcer starts by eroding the mucosa of the GI tract wall. What functions of digestion and/or reabsorption might be lost if this layer is no longer functional? What functions will be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and then the muscularis? a. Absorption would not happen correctly some of the ingested and secreted may seep out of the lumen.
Your joint is surrounded by tissue called the synovium, which supports and protects it. The synovium makes fluid that helps the cartilage and bones of your joint move smoothly. When you have RA, your immune system attacks the synovium causing inflammation, or swelling, and other RA symptoms. Left untreated, an inflamed synovium can damage your cartilage and bone. When this happens, the muscles and tissues that surround the joint weaken.
3. How does damage to the PNS affect the body? c. Some may experience temporary numbness, tingling, and pricking sensations, sensitivity to touch, or muscle weakness. Pthers may suffer from more extreme symptoms including, burning pain, muscle wasting, paralysis, or organ or gland dysfunction, people may become unable to digest food easily, maintain safe levels of blood pressure, sweat normally, or experience normal sexual function. In the most extreme cases, breathing may become difficult or organ failure may occur.
Gastroparesis is usually caused by damage to the vagus nerve which regulates stomach function, but can also be caused by other factors.1.2 Gastroparesis causes many irritating symptoms. Diagnostic exams and treatments exist to diagnose and treat the symptoms of the disorder, but no cure is yet available. The vagus nerve, which is responsible for many sensory and motor responses of the intestine, can be damaged due to esophageal or gastric surgery. 1,2 The vagus nerve sends neurotransmitter impulses to the smooth muscle of the stomach that result in contraction and forward propulsion of gastric contents. If the vagus nerve is injured during surgery, gastric emptying may not occur.
The symptom that has traditionally been associated with lupus has been the butterfly-shaped rash that appears across the patient’s cheeks, along with mouth ulcers and hair loss. One of the reasons that lupus is so often misdiagnosed is that its symptoms are much like the symptoms of many other diseases. For example, lupus often mimics arthritis with joint pain, redness, and swelling. The warring antigens, anitbodies, and resulting stress on systems can often produce an abnormal urinalysis, leading to a misdiagnosis of kidney disease. If the lungs, heart, or abdominal organs are affected, then pleurisy, pericarditis, and / or peritonitis can appear and suggest lung, heart, or abdominal diseases.
STAGE 3 The sore worsens and extends beneath the skin surface, forming a small crater. There may be no pain at this stage due to nerve damage. The risk of tissue death and infection are high. STAGE 4 Pressure sores progress, with extensive damage to deeper tissues (muscles, tendons and bones). Serious complications, such as osteomyelitis (infection of the bone) or sepsis (infection carried through the blood) can occur.