Respiratory System Essay

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Module 08 Written Assignment - Respiration and Urinary Systems Atmospheric air takes a specific pathway from the external environment to our internal lungs. Describe this pathway starting with external nares to the alveoli. [3] Air normally enters the respiratory system through the external nares, which opens in the nasal cavity. Air than is passed through the pharynx(throat).From the throat it passes through allowing air to enter the larynx. After leaving the larynx passes into the trachea. Air from the trachea passes through the larger right and smaller left bronchi that descends into the right and left lungs. In the lungs, the bronchi re-branches into the secondly bronchi that eventually re-branches into tiny bronchioles. Air movement into the tiny bronchioles finally terminates in a cluster of alveoli, where the gases are exchanged. * * * What role does the trachea and surfactant play within the respiratory system? [2] * The trachea protects the airway from over expansion and collapsing due to respiratory pressure changes and it consists of a series of c-shape rings which makes it stable and flexible. Since the esophagus runs parallel posteriorly to the trachea, the open portions of the trachea’s C-shaped rings face posterior toward the esophagus that allows a bending movement of the trachea and easily allows food to pass through the esophagus. Surfactant is an important oily substance secreted by septal cells that covers the thin layer of water coating on the alveolar surface. Surfactant promotes easy expansion (inhale) of the alveoli and prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhale. It also reduces the effort needed for the lungs to expand and contract during breathing. Gas exchange within the lungs and body tissues is vital for life to exist. Briefly explain the PROCESS OF gas exchange that occurs in the lung

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