Renal Essay

12919 WordsJun 8, 201552 Pages
Page FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCES INRENAL DISORDERS ▪ if fluid intake is inadequate, the pt is said to bevolume depleted and may show s/sx of fluidvolume deficit002E ▪ the fluid intake and output (I&O) record, a keymonitoring tool, is used to document importantfluid parameters, including:-fluid taken (orally and parenterally)-volume of urine-other fluid losses (diarrhea, vomiting,diaphoresis) ▪ pt weight is also important and documentingtrends in weight is key assessment strategyessential for determining the daily fluidallowance and indicating signs of fluid overloador deficit. Nursing Alert : the most accurate indicator of fluidloss or gain in an acutely ill pt is WEIGHT. Anaccurate daily weight must be obtained andrecorded. A 1-kg wt gain is equal to 1000ml ofretained fluid.GERONTOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS ▪ with aging, kidney is less able to respond toacute fluid and electrolyte changes. ▪ elderly pt may develop atypical and non-specifics/sx of disturbed renal function and fluid andelectrolyte imbalances. ▪ fluid balance deficit in elderly:-constipation-falls-medications toxicity-urinary tract and respiratory tract infection-delirium-seizures-electrolyte imbalances-hyperthermia-delayed wound healing RENAL DISORDERSCHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE ▪ umbrella term that describes kidney damage or a ↓ in the GFR for 3 or more months. ▪ can result in end stage renal dse andnecessitate renal replacement therapy (dialysisor kidney transplant). RISK FACTORS : ▪ Cardiovascular Dse ▪ Diabetes, primary source of CKD. ▪ Hpn, 2 nd leading cause ▪ Obesity PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ▪ early stages of CKD, there can be significantdamage to the kidneys w/o s/sx. ▪ damage to the kidney is thought to be causedby prolonged acute inflammation that is notorgan specific and thus has subtle systemicmanifestations. STAGES OF CKD ▪ based on the GFR.Normal GFR:

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