The support from the catholic church and the traditional elites was a very important reason that Mussolini was able to consolidate his power in 1922-1924 because both of these groups of people had a very large influence on the people of Italy at the time. However, I think that the actions of the current king; Victor Emmanuel III, was a far greater reason for Mussolini’s success because he was the only one who could’ve thrown Mussolini out of power but he didn’t. Unless he did something, Mussolini’s opponent’s options were very limited. The Catholic Church and the Elites were very important for Mussolini to establish a dictatorship. To gain power, Mussolini had to gain support from as many people as he could, he realised that people listened, and followed the church.
Nationalism is a belief that nation states should be formed by people with a shared identity and culture. In Italy in 1815, there were few nationalists; however the amount of nationalists grew throughout the 19th century. Nationalism spread across Italy due to influential people like Gioberti, Mazzini and Balbo, other factors such as a new pope and Verdi also contributed to the spread of nationalist ideas. Young Italy was founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini, a nationalist who believed in the equality of humans. The organisation was accompanied by a journal called ‘Young Italy’.
Overall, all these policies somewhat increased political unity, albeit temporarily, as they widened the electorate and allowed the Italian masses the chance to vote in a majority government. However, despite this, Italy still remained largely politically divided. The Libyan invasion of 1911 divided both the right wing/nationalist interventionists (who became more
While there were many crucial factors to the Italian unification, in terms of individual impact I feel that Garibaldi was indeed the most important. His involvement in capturing the Two Sicilies, gaining popular support and weakening Austria made him an essential figure in the unification. However, it is also necessary to give credit to others such as Cavour and Mazzini who were more important in gaining foreign support and raising national consciousness, respectively. Garibaldi is different from other notable figures of the unification in that he was popular among the ordinary Italians. His popularity is evident upon considering that he was able to convince the Sicilians to fight and vote for a unified Italy despite previously being separatist.
Renaissance and Protestant Reformation Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Renaissance and Protestant Reformation The protestant reformation within the western Christianity was the schism initiated such Protestants like john Wycliffe, martin Luther, john Calvin among others. It was touched off by the 1517 posting of Luther’s ninety five theses. The main aim of these self described reformers was objection to the doctrines, rituals, leadership as well as the ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church and it led to the creation of new national protestant churches (Kelly, 2009). The reformation was occasioned by early event in the European continent such as the Black Death and the western schism which impacted negatively on the people’s faith in the Catholic Church as well as the papacy that governed it. There was also the impact of the renaissance ideas which spread through the print press as well as the fall of eastern Roman Empire.
The Great American Symphony After World War I, anti-German feelings started to diminish the dominance that European music had on American Composers. These composers wanted to break the traditions of European music and create a style and sound that was “American.” When Dvorak came to America, his thoughts and ideas boosted self-esteem among American composers, encouraging them to find their nationalistic voice. Composers started using musical themes from popular music and experimented with different forms. When an “American” sound was established, composers started to write pieces that they were hoping would become known as the definition of American music; music that is accessible to everyone and that is distinctively American. They wanted to write The Great American Symphony.
Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of the European history. Renaissance art emerged in Italy during the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Renaissance art derived during the early 14th century in Italy to late 16th century in Europe. Renaissance art was most mature in Europe during the late 16th century. The term Renaissance means rebirth which is very fitting for this era because it represents a cultural rebirth of Classical art, new artists of Renaissance looked to earlier classical artist and incorporated more light and color into their work so that their work would look almost life like.
For instance, “the sale of indulgences for the benefit of the church of Rome specifically for the rebuilding of St. Peters Cathedral provoked harsh criticism, especially by those who saw the luxuries of the papacy as a betrayal of apostolic ideals ” (Fiero 119). Martin Luther stated a list of objections, called the Ninety-Five Theses, against the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant Reformation changed the course of Western civilization for the long term which led to the impact on the arts using Northern Renaissance art, music and literature. Protestant reformers made two new printmaking processes, which were woodcut and engraving. Compared to the too expensive hand-illuminated manuscripts, books with printed pictures became an inexpensive option for all (Fiero 127).
Thus, the Renaissance was heavily influenced by the earlier Italian Renaissance. It was then common for people to travel south across the Alps and return north with the ideas and styles they were exposed to in northern Italy. Nonetheless, the Northern Renaissance had characteristics that distinguished it from the Italian Renaissance. Like, it was more integrated with Christian concerns. As an example, more emphasis was placed on learning Classical languages to improve translations of the Bible.
This style originated in Italy during the Baroque period. This style was created as a result of the Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent, which set guidelines to which Baroque paintings were supposed to follow. The Counter Reformation was an era in which the church relied on religious orders like the Jesuits to guide them. The Council of Trent created these rules to help spread their art ideas and to influence other periods to come. In Caravaggio’s painting of The Martyrdom of Saint Mathew he uses a violent contrast of light to keep the eye of the viewer on the subject of the painting.