They commissioned churches with enormous domes, swirling forms, huge spiraled columns, multicolored marble, and lavish murals. The same exuberance was expressed in non-religious building. The Trevi Fountain in Rome is an example. French Baroque The Baroque style became more restrained in France. While lavish details were used, French buildings were usually symmetrical and orderly.
The sale of vast amounts of materials from Italy caused Northern Europeans to like Italian artistry and humanistic ways which they cultivated into their own culture. The Italian Renaissance and Northern Europe Renaissance stood on the same principles of “rebirth” but took many different paths in implementing their ideals. However, there was one very important social and cultural similarity. The Italians and the English were people who believed in Christianity, which both Michelangelo and Albrecht Durer stressed through their earlier Renaissance paintings and sculptures of religious characters. (Italian Renaissance vs. Northern European Renaissance, 2010) The Italians and the English both draw and painted though linear point of views, which later developed a drawing and painting practice called, “chiaroscuro” using light and dark colors to give a three-dimensional illusions.
The French Revolution also changed France religiously. The French Revolution was heavily influenced by the ideas on Enlightenment which challenges normal traditional lines of authority and focuses on the individual. This caused religious backfire as the Catholic Church had a lot of authority and ownership over most of France during the 18th century. The popular religion in France before 1792 was Catholic. The Enlightenment challenged these beliefs hence dechristianisation.
Ashley Warnet Art History Shellcroft 11-24-09 What was the impact of the Reformation on art in Northern Europe The reformation put a sudden end to the relative unity that had existed for the previous thousand years in Western Christendom under the Roman Catholic Church. The reformation, which began in Germany but spread quickly throughout Europe was initiated in response to the ongoing sense of corruption and administrative abuse in the church. It expressed an alternate vision of Christian practice which led to which led to the creation and rise of Protestantism. In many places, the reformers led to the destruction of religious art. “With no call to paint religious themes, the artists found new themes and focused on worldly subjects, especially on portraits.” (Stokstad, 2008 pg.740) Artists across Europe new about the new forces at work, there was study tours that were a very important part of education.
There was also the impact of the renaissance ideas which spread through the print press as well as the fall of eastern Roman Empire. On the other hand, resistance was a cultural movement that swept through Europe beginning in Italy in the late middle ages before spreading to the rest of Europe through availability of paper as well as the invention of metal movables type which increased the dissemination of ideas (Kelly, 2009). As a cultural movement, renaissance encompassed innovative flowery of the Latin language based on classical sources leading to the development of linear perspectives as well as other techniques rendering a more natural reality in painting and gradual spread of education reform. In the field of politics, renaissance contributed to the development of conventional diplomacy while in science, it led to and increase in reliance on observation. Renaissance also saw the revolution in many and different intellectual pursuits as well as social and political up heal.
Based on historical events such as the Protestant reformation, the scientific revolution, the age of enlightenment, the French revolution, the industrial revolution and the World Wars as well as the affect they had on Western society, it is safe to say that Western humanism is alive and well; our tradition and heritage that emphasize freedom and individual self-worth helped shape our culture and will continue to promote social justice and human rights. In the early to mid sixteenth century, Europe was in the midst of religious reform. Sparked by the advent of the printing press and an increase in knowledge and intellectual thought, many began to question the Catholic Church. Lutheranism and Protestantism spread rapidly throughout Europe and the face of Catholicism changed as well. These movements can be viewed as the first stepping stone towards a modern, humanist society.
The Baroque style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church which wanted works of art to portray religious themes while conveying a sense of direct emotional involvement to the viewers, as a challenge to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. The style began around 1600 in Rome, Italy and spread to most of Europe. ------------------------------------------------- Development The Baroque originated around 1600s, when the Council of Trent, by which the Roman Catholic Church answered many questions of internal reform. * They addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed.
They sought both comfort and attractiveness in their buildings, adorning them with tapestries, paintings, statues, finely made furniture, and glass windows. The most famous Italian Renaissance architect was Filipo Brunelleschi, best known for the dome he designed and completed for the Cathedral of Florence. The Renaissance period was marked by a great increase of in sculptures, especially in Italy. Sculptures in churches became very common. The majority of free-standing nude sculpted in bronze or marble resembled ancient Greek and Roman sculptures much more so than medieval ones.
This not only represents a symbol of Gothic spirituality, but a practicality in engineering. These arches redistributed the thrust of downward force in a more equal controllable directions. Second it is known for the massive ribbed vaults that are seen along the ceilings of these churches. These ribbed vaults enabled the buildings to achieve new heights. Third it is known for the flying buttresses that were used to let the outward thrust of the vaults go gracefully to the ground through a series of arches.
Filled with beautiful statues and paintings, the inside of St. Peter’s Basilica is truly breathtaking. One of the more famous statues is the Pieta by Michelangelo. This sculpture is made entirely of marble, and depicts Jesus in the Virgin Mary’s lap after the crucifixion. This is said to be one of Michelangelo’s most detailed works of art. Other sculptures include Pope Clement XIII by Antonio Canova and the bronze statue of St. Peter built by Arnolfo di Cambio where the feet are worn away from centuries of people stopping to kiss them.