Reflectively Analyse and Compare the Three Main Theoretical Approaches and How They Affect the Outcomes of the Counselling Process.

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Student: Stephen Bright 17th May 2012 Diploma in Therapeutic Counselling Level 4 Unit 1: VQ20W Whitehaven School Cumbria Adult Education Reflectively analyse and compare the three main theoretical approaches and how they affect the outcomes of the counselling process. What are Theories and Models? The colloquial use of the term theory is an attempt to explain or predict something in context, a guess or supposition. The actual meaning is something thought to be true. A hypothesis backed by evidence. A psychology theory should describe current and predict future behaviour and be fact based. A model describes a sequence of events, allowing behaviours to be monitored or acted upon at certain appropriate points in time providing some measure of progress to be understood. Psychodynamic Counselling Psychodynamic principles first referred to in 1874 by Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke looking at thermodynamics suggesting all living things were energy systems. Sigmund Freud adapted this theory applying it to the human psyche. Freud and his followers Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Otto Rank, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud et al developed Psychodynamic therapies into what they are today, focussing on revealing and resolving unconscious conflicts formed in early life, driving symptoms causing dissonance. Based on the assumption everyone has a conscious and an unconscious mind, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed a series of ideas about human psychological functioning. The conscious mind includes everything we are aware of, our mental processing and all we think and talk about rationally. Freud’s First Model Freud’s first model of mind structure The Topographical Model was driven from results gained from his patients having no recollection of trauma under hypnosis. According to Freud, most of the contents of the unconscious mind are unacceptable or unpleasant but continues to
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