Nitration of Methylbenzoate Aim: The aim of the experiment is to successfully perform the nitration of Methylbenzoate by the recrystalisation method and in doing so obtaining a melting point and the infra-red spectra graph of the product. Introduction: Methylbenzoate is an aromatic compound and it is structurally related to Benzene. It has an electron rich aromatic ring which makes it vulnerable to electrophiles this in turn making them react. A common electrophile is used in this reaction, which is the NO2+ nitronium ion. It is produced by reacting nitric acid and sulphuric acid simultaneously.
In the experiment a secondary alcohol (cyclohexanol) is heated with acid (phosphoric acid). A carbocation is generated by the loss of water from cyclohexanol because of the protonated alcohol. Loss of hydrogen ion from the carbocation will give the desired alkene (cyclohexene). Fractional distillation is used to separate liquids that have different boiling points that are relatively close together. By using this method of distillation a mixture is heated to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound is evaporated the distillate is then condensed and collected.
Introduction Nucelophilic substitutions are chemical reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile attacks the electron poor electrophile1. There are two classes of nucelophilic reactions – SN1, and SN2. The SN1 reaction is a 2 step, uni-molecular reaction, which is independent of the nucleophile. It requires a highly substituted electrophile since there is a formation of a carbocation in its rate determining step, good polar protic solvents which stabilize the carbocation and a good leaving group1. On the other hand, a SN2 reaction is a concerted, bimolecular reaction which has one slow, transition state1.
Results : Yield (mass in gram) = __________________0.128 g_____________________ Melting point of pure phenyl benzoate (OC) = ___________70O______________ Melting point of your phenyl benzoate (OC) = ___________69O______________ Questions : 1. Why do we use NaOH solution to dissolve phenol rather than water in step 1 ? Because NaOH can be use to change the phenol to ion form, which can be more soluble in the aqueous
Since (+)-α-Pinene's double bond is trisubstituted and sterically hindered, only two compounds will reaction with borane to form dialkylborane as intermediate. After we get borane in the desired position, we will need to do oxidation process to replace borane by -OH group. Treat dialkylborane with NaOH and H202 to form alcohol and boric acid. Oxygen in hydrogen peroxide will attach to
Abstract: The aim was to react trans, trans-2,4-Hexadiene-1-ol with maleic anhydride. The reaction was a Diels-Alder reaction and it produced cis-1,3,3a,4,5,7a-Hexahydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isobenzofuran-carboxylic acid. This reaction gave a percentage yield of 72%. The reaction product was purified and the melting point of both the crude and purified product was found. The purification step reduced the percentage yield to 47%.
h) A way to make hard water softer is to put an sodium nitrate and create a precipitate to mellow out the reaction. Another way of making it softer is by removing the calcium ions one way of doing that is by boiling the solution to take out some of the ions. Conclusion: Overall, we determined that sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, is the anion that can be used to precipitate the most metal cations. Also, we learned that the anion sodium chloride, NaCl, could be used to remove silver ions from solutions. The stuff that I found interesting was that how many colours you can get when you mix the cations and anions
This explanation can be demonstrated in table 3 also because the results of the reactions demonstrates that chloride reacted more by the color of the product compared to the color of chloride in the mineral oil. Also it also demonstrates that iodine is the weakest oxidizing agent because the results show that iodide didn’t change much from the color that it showed in the mineral oil. In example 6 we have shown the activity series for the halogens used in this
Micro – scale Reduction of a Ketone to an Alcohol: Benzophenone to Diphenylmethanol with Sodium Borohydride Abstract: Purpose of experiment 2.1 was to perform reduction reaction of benzophenone to diphenylmethanol with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The reducing agent was used in excess to ensure complete reduction of the carbonyl group. The product was isolated as a solid by filtration and its purity was checked using Thin Layer Chromatography with different ratios of mixture of polar and non – polar solvents and by checking its melting point, which was 520C - 620C. Infra – Red spectroscopy was not performed, however previously printed graphs were compared and analysed based on tables in Chemistry Laboratory Manual. Purpose of the Experiment: To produce diphenylmethanol from the reduction of benzophenone by using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent.
Kobs is the slope on the graph plotting Vol of NaaS2O3 against time. Specific hydrogen ion catalysis Kobs = KH+[H+] This is used when a strong acid is being used in the reaction as it acid fully dissociated and there is no A- value. This is the equation used for reactions (i), (ii) and (iv) as they used HCl as the acid. General acid catalysis Kobs = KH+[H+] + KHA[HA]. This is used when a weak acid is being used in the reaction as it acid does not fully dissociated and there is an A- value.