Although however, this strained their relationship between the USSR from having conflicting national interests, this economic concept could be said to have been a huge tension between the USSR and America, as it excluded Russia, alienating them by spreading their capitalist ideologies and all the while ignoring their need for help in rebuilding themselves. Truman based his entire strategy of containment on George Kennan’s analysis of communism. Kennan implied the entire problem is the ideology, and the leaders who believe in it. The American hostility to communism therefore played a huge role in the shaping of the Cold War and showing the divide between the superpowers and highlighting the personalities and conflicting interests between
The ongoing debate within the Bolshevik party between the years 1924 and 1928 regarding the New Economic Policy was largely responsible for the power struggle that followed Lenin’s death. However, there were other factors, such as the nature of the leadership the party should adopt and the direction the Revolution should take ideologically. Additionally, personal ambitions played a part in the struggle for power. The New Economic Policy was introduced after the end of the Civil War as a substitute to War Communism in 1921. This was an economic concession that Lenin was forced to make due to the deteriorating economic conditions and the real threat of a revolt against the Bolshevik government.
All of the rulers of Russia had similar priorities, although some were more forceful than others. The main ones were the retention of power, being an autocracy or a dictatorship and crushing opposition. The communist rulers had different priorities however to the Tsars in terms of political ideology and social aims. The Tsars were not uniform in their aims though as each one faced different situations and wanted a different kind of ruling. For example Alexander II was a humanitarian but Nicholas II mainly wanted modernisation for Russia.
He believed there should be a smychka (alliance) between peasants and workers (didn’t want to create differences between them.) • Trotsky wanted to abolish the NEP- Resented the fact that much of the USSR’s industry was under the direct control of the government. Hated the NEPMEN (traders who made large profits from the NEP.) Wanted to end the inequality between poor peasants and kulaks. Wanted to abolish private farms and introduce collective farming.
In order to prevent the NEP tearing his Bolshevik party apart, however, Lenin introduced a “ban on factionalism”, and this stifled criticism of the NEP. I do not believe that the divisions over the NEP were the most important factor for the outcome of Stalin emerging victorious from the power struggle, as I believe that Stalin’s power base within the party, due to his power of patronage, was the most important factor in the outcome of the power struggle. I also believe that the ban on factionalism was a very important factor in the power struggle, along with Stalin’s character and introduction of the Five Year Plan (FYP). There is a lot of evidence to suggest that the divisions created within the CPSU over the issue of the NEP are the most important factor in the outcome of the power struggle between 1924-29 which eventually saw Stalin emerge as Lenin’s successor, as the policy allowed Stalin to weaken the reputation of his opponents, due to the fact that any attack from the left upon the NEP was seen as an attack upon Lenin. After Lenin’s death, it could be said that he was seen as a “God” within the CPSU, therefore, any attack upon the policy was seen as a “betrayal” to the party.
Critics of the Tsarist system saw serfdom and the comparatively feudal system of Russia as an obstacle to Russian modernisation and the growth of the economy. This system prevented Russia from moving properly into the commercial and industrial age along with the rest of the western world, most Russians acknowledged this and also blamed serfdom for problems such as military failure, food shortages and civil disorder. Alexander II saw the emancipation as a way to satisfy some of the serfs requests to keep them happy enough but not enough to grant them such privileges as the powerful middle class such as an education as this might lead to greater ambition and drive among serfs who may no longer be satisfied by farming and may not follow the wishes of the tsar with seemingly blind obedience. Alexander III had very different views and ideas on how to control the ‘dark masses’, he believed that the fear
This angered Stalin as he did not want West Germany to recover and be given Marshall Aid. Marshall Aid made tension worse because it divided Europe further, the west could get richer and the east would go poorer because Stalin would not accept Marshall Aid. The back round of the Berlin Blockade and airlift cause tension because the west wanted Germany to be more prosperous but Stalin wanted Germany and Berlin to be weak. Tension increased because Britain and America joined their zones together creating Bizona. Stalin got angrier when he heard that France joined to create Trizona.
As Russia was having economical pressure extended unto it by France and Briton to continue its war effort the P.G was put in a paradoxical situation where to survive it had to continue fighting, but it could not survive if it stayed in the war. This is a circumstance that the Bolsheviks were keen to exploit, but it was Lenin who used the slogan "peace, land and bread" to try and rally the support of the common man. Another key event in the run up to the October revolution was the falling support of the S.R's and the Menshevik parties. As they had joined a failing government they were seen by many
To the government the whole reason of the law was to guarantee land owners profits of which they had became accustomed to during the war. However opponents of the regime both inside and outside of the regime only saw the law as a class piece of legislation in which the law saved landowners from three things: cheaper foreign grain, stabilised prices and making corn more expensive for the consumer. This concept and idea was not new, a similar law 1804 had been introduced to guarantee 80 shillings a quarter. In spite of this the government had problems to face including riots, petitions and demonstrations. The main protest for this law, was the Luddism riots and machine breaking.
How far did the introduction of Western Style reforms and the use of foreigners assist Peter the Great in strengthening his absolute rule? Peter the Great was influenced by the instability in Russia he had witnessed in Childhood, and was determined to expunge the subversive element of his population which could precipitate a resurgence of this anti-authoritarian violence. Further aims included the unification of Russia, extension of territory and its defence against the Poles, Tatars and Swedes. This required securing his absolutism, as internal security is a prerequisite of an effective foreign policy. Although foreigners and western-style changes did not cover the entire scope of his developments, they certainly appear to have been a fundamental