On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the war. The US liberated Cuba, and got Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines as colonies for itself. * In 1901, before leaving, the US forced the Cubans to insert the Platt Amendment into their constitution, which gave the US a military base on the island (Guantanamo). Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines all became American protectorates. Panama Crisis * Theodore Roosevelt, who became president of the United States in 1901, believed that a U.S.-controlled canal across Central America was a vital strategic interest to the U.S. * The Panama Canal would shorten the distance that ships had to travel to pass between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
American Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century As a growing nation, the United States felt the need to continue expansion for the benefit of all citizens. Territorial development allows for growth in population and natural resources to produce goods and supply services for prosperity. To acquire or control territories, forcible means would sometimes be used, otherwise known as imperialism. This paper will describe imperialism more intently. Advantages of imperialism will be discussed, as well as some of the disadvantages.
And Wilson used his Moral Diplomacy. During Theodore Roosevelt’s administration (1901-1909), President Roosevelt inherited the United States rising as an Imperial Power, rendering off any European presence in the Western Hemisphere, conquering the Philippines and Hawaii as an access point to get to China, and not to mention provoke Panama to gain their independence from Colombia, and gain the isthmus territory to build a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Roosevelt showed the world that the United States was a very influential powerful country by sending the Great White Fleet on a world tour, demonstrating its military rise. Roosevelt believed that the underdeveloped countries of the world should be watched and policed, and his Roosevelt Corollary modified the Monroe Doctrine. His famous quote was “speak softly and carry a big stick”, which meant that you should negotiate in matter that both sides win, but if not in agreement then you should persuade the matter and use force if necessary.
Turner believed that the idea of the frontier shaped the American being and their characteristics. He talks about how the frontier drove American history and that is why America is how it is today. Turner proves how expansion to the American West changed peoples' views on their culture. Due to the gain of new lands, this aided the problem of the closing frontier, and helped America become a rising world power. Teddy Roosevelt gave out a command to invade the Philippine islands if war had risen with Spain.
Industrialists wanted trade to expand into new overseas market where American products could be sold. The United States opened their overseas market with Japan. Japan wanted an open trade with America and to approve their military technology. The United States also gained more ports in the Midway Islands and built a naval base in Pearl Harbor. Even though the United States acquired a lot of ports prior to the Spanish-American war, they also gained new territories.
Mahan thought that the country with the most powerful navy would control the earth. He believed we should build a canal, and to protect the canal by controlling Hawaii and Cuba, which he thought was a necessity. During this time, thoughts of Anglo-Saxon superiority were a common "excuse" for imperialism. The political scientist and professor of Columbia University, John Burgess said the Anglo-Saxon races were "particularly endowed with the capacity for establishing national state, they are entrusted with the mission of conducting the political civilization of the modern world." Even before McKinley's presidency, he showed interest in foreign markets for the surplus of American products.
Many Americans believe that God give them the power and duty to expand territory, strengthen the United States. The motivation of United States launched this war is a debatable subject. The origin and influence The term Manifest Destiny was popular in the 19th century, some Americans believed they had the destiny to expand American continent Territory, from the Atlantic coast to Pacific Ocean. The ideal of territory expansion is already had before the American Independence, but in 1845, The United States Magazine and Democratic Review editor John O'Sullivan published an essay “Annexation”. “…our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions” This essay reveal John O'Sullivan claim United States had a destiny expansion .
During the 19th century America began to expand beyond the territory of America as they became part of the imperialist power. As the economy flourished they needed more input and output for markets to sell natural resources. As trade expanded in the Philippines the U.S needed strong military to secure trade with a naval force. The U.S annexed the Philippines under the condition of protecting the world from Spanish rule. However not all Americans believed the U.S should become an imperialist country.
And on February 15, 1898, the USS Maine sank in Havana, in which an explosion caused 266 deaths. The Spanish officials conceded that this was a pure accident, however American officials claimed it was due to a mine. In comparison to this, Some Spanish and Cuban officials secretly thought that America might have intentionally caused the explosion as a pretext to go to war with Spain. And eventually after America had defeated Spain in the war, they were able to extend territorially, due to possessing Cuba. In Comparison, another factor which
MUP | ‘The role of the United States in world affairs, 1900-1920’ | | | Valeria Kodolova | 26.11.2012 | | 910 words After the Spanish-American War, the USA started an aggressive foreign policy in order to maintain order, prevent foreign intervention (especially of the European countries) & protect U.S. economic interests. The foreign policy of the USA evolved from strict neutrality to imperialist. I would like to touch some important points connected to this problem in my research. By the year 1900 the USA emerged as a great power. There were various circumstances which helped the USA to become successful, powerful and prosperous nation.