A good way to teach this to a child who is having problems with synthetic patterns, is to give them books, like Cat in the Hat by Dr. Seuss. Orally repeating words that sound alike and practicing writing them as we say them. As we do this the child will be able to say that –at makes this sound in a words, which will help them learn new and bigger words. Also a good way to use this type of instruction is to use actual objects and have the child sort them by the way they sound, then writing those words, and then making sentences out of them. Alternative #2: Spelling Based Instruction, on pages 234 and 235, is an approach that focuses on each child individual level of knowledge.
The difference in teaching methods from this starting point consists of whether to teach said alphabetic print by sound or by meaning. Beginning in the 1600s, children were taught the alphabet using a hornbook. From the 1700s through the mid-1800s, children were taught to read through the memorization of the alphabet using phonics, or letter-sound correspondence and spelling lists. Continuing on in the mid-1800s, educators began to move from the phonics approach to the meaning-based approach, or whole-word approach. Around the 1930s through the 1970s, the whole-word approach was used and was exemplified in the Dick and Jane reading series.
Perhaps the most famous of the basal readers was a series published by the Scott Foresman Company, called Dick and Jane; whose readers stared two children of the same name. Readers such as Dick and Jane used a whole word/language method for reading instruction, also known as the “look-say” method. The whole-language theory embraces the approach that learning the two components of English literacy, reading and writing, are equivalent to learning to speak English and should be a natural, unconscious progression best cultivated by formless immersion. In an environment rich in simple printed texts and in reading aloud, young children make an connective jump from recognizing the letters of the alphabet to being able to read words. Whole world theorists protest unfamiliar words can be “skipped, guessed at, or picked up from context” (Lemann, 1997).
1. Literature Review The 1978 peer tutoring study, “Peer Tutoring: Putting It to the Test”, by Amy Roseman Allen and Nancy Boraks, will be adumbrated in this summary. The authors of the study, Boraks and Allen, mention a conservative amount of literature in the opening paragraph. They collectively mention ‘recent and comprehensive reviews of tutoring studies’ by a number of authors (Devin Sheehan, Feldman and Allen 1976; Paolitto 1976; Stainback and Licht Ward 1975), stating that these indicate that there is rife debate within the sphere of educational literature regarding whether peer tutoring is effective or otherwise. In addition, they mention their own preceding 1977 peer tutoring training program, during which school-aged children were taught an array of teaching methods for use in classroom cooperation settings.
Write a well-organized essay in which you examine Gaines’s use of biblical allusions in A Lesson Before Dying and evaluate how they contribute to the overall theme of the novel. Questions may be directed to either of the two Pre-AP English Nine teachers, Toni Dingley or Michelle Young, or to the English Department Chair, Dave
Children are seen as emergent readers and writers, who bring to school with them a whole variety of skills and knowledge with which the teacher can work with. As language and literacy (or English) teachers, it is up to us to analyse and asses the needs of children according to; theories of development (Piaget, Vygotsky, Wilkinson, Luke & Freebody), developmental practices (socio-cultural), prior knowledge (grammar, punctuation, orthography, text-types), establish their skills base (reading [invented spelling], writing) to help determine what phase children are in according to their stage of development, what there ZPD’s are, and thus establish a teaching strategy to help scaffold their learning, giving them the skills to enter society as literate adults, as summed up by Gardner (Gardner & Brockman, 2000): ‘I want people at the end of their education to understand the world in ways that they couldn’t have understood it before their
Elzbieta I Pawlica Professor White College Writing II 17 February 2015 Rhetorical Analysis Texting Misconception In her 2008 student essay called “Texting and Literacy,” Veronica Stafford discusses a well debated topic: texting. Her essay was used in a textbook called From Inquiry to Academic Writing as an example paper on how to effectivity develop a thesis. The essay’s purpose is to inform her peers about the problems that are caused by texting as well as to persuade students to read books more often. Stafford begins with a short anecdote where she describes students who devote their full time and energy to texting. Stafford notices that they do not socialize with people around them.
Phonology and Reading Proficiency In the article “Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language”, the importance of phonological processing skills are discussed, three key skills have been identified in the research by Wagner and Torgesen (1987); phonological awareness, phonological recoding in lexical access, and short-term verbal memory. Awareness includes abilities to identify and manipulate speech sounds, recoding involves transforming a written word into sounds, whilst short-term verbal memory is self-explanatory, (as cited by Chow, McBride-Chang & Burgess, 2005). Wagner, Torgesen, and Rashotte (1994) posited a strong correlation between phonological abilities and reading acquisition, which is transferable and of mutual benefit, from the L1 to the L2, (as cited by Chow, McBride-Chang & Burgess, 2005). However a study exploring the perceived advantages of bilingualism, and its impact on language learning, found it is significantly reduced in Chinese bilingualism, as Bialystock, Majumder, and Martin show in
Index Question 1 3 1.1 Learning outcomes and Assessment Standards 4 Assessment standards for learning outcome 3 5 Assessment standards for learning outcome 4 6 Assessment standards for learning outcome 5 6 Assessment standards for learning outcome 6 7 1.2 Combrink’s model 7 Phase 1: Preparing to read a text 7 Phase 2: The first reading of the text 7 Phase 3: Opportunity for individual response 7 Phase 4: Opportunity to share responses with others 8 Phase 5: Developing and structuring responses 8 Phase 6 and 7: Comprehension activities and a re-evaluation of initial response 8 Phase 8: Evaluation 8 1.3 Questions for homework based on the poem 9 1.4. Second homework question based on poem 9 Question 2 10 Bibliography 18 Question 1 The Shadow At first the shadow smiled. Darkness has no weight, and its smile was as empty as the air. Watching it haunt me, dancing, I imagined it had a purpose, That if I left it long enough it would go away. 5 But night-time became my prison.
This paper will briefly look at these two different approaches, discuss some options on how best to deliver an effective reading program, and review a commercial reading program, in this case, Jolly Phonics, and its usefulness in promoting phonological awareness. Phonics based instruction is basically the premise that reading is learned by making sense of the smallest components of language, meaning the letters, then slowly progressing towards the larger components of sounds, words and sentences, teaching the children the relationship between the letters. It is then that they learn to decode language and gain understanding. In essence, they break the code and master the components. This is generally taught through direct instruction, via the use of worksheets and rote exercises.