Prejudice is when an individual is judged by aspects which do not relate to them at all. Prejudice is the main trouble of social inequality, in society when a family gains wealth, another will be made poor. And when a group gains power, another group is made below that power. The link between prejudice and stereotype is very similar, when prejudice occurs, stereotyping maybe also becomes a result of it and then this becomes discrimination. When it comes to prejudice many situations are caused by stereotypes.
Merton’s approach explains how both normal and deviant behaviour can stem from the same goals, however it clearly ignores the power of the ruling class to make and enforce laws, and is too deterministic as not all working class people deviate. A.K Cohen alternatively disagrees with the majority of the strain theory as he states deviance is an individual not group response to strain, and believes Merton only focuses on utilitarian crimes and not crimes with no economic motives. Cohen suggests working class boys are the anomie in the middle class education system, and as they lack the skills to achieve they develop status frustration and therefore group together with those of a similar mind-set which creates a subculture. A.K Cohens view overall does not support the suggestion that crime and deviance are
1.2- Indirect Discrimination: Indirect discrimination occurs when policies and practices, which appear neutral or fair because they are applied to everyone, actually disadvantage people and particular groups within society. Unfair or unequal treatment of an individual or group on the grounds of age, disability ,gender, race, religion, beliefs or sexual orientation, being treated less favourable than someone else in the same situation, being treated unfairly. Positive Discrimination: Positive discrimination is regarded as the preferential treatment of members of a minority group over a majority group, either by sex, race, age, marital status or sex orientation. Racial Discrimination: If a practitioner
According to (Jolly, 2006) gender and sex are two different things and are one in the same depending on the conversation in which one is being discussed. Gender is basically how something or someone is perceived and usually would have more to do with the behavior of an individual. Sex is used in describing the anatomy of someone or something. How do gender and sex contribute to the concepts and constructions ? Society and culture really create the roles of what is usually exepted as appropriate for a person of a specific gender.
"Explain how freedoms for African Americans were socially, politically, and economically limited from 1865 to 1900?” Socially, blacks were subjected to segregation and discrimination. Segregation wasn’t really a large problem to them, however, as they were more interested in forming a black community rather than integrating with the whites. However, I mean, it is still pretty awful to be treated like you’re not a being worthy enough to drink out of the same water fountain or attend the same school based on skin color. Blacks were subjected to many dehumanizing things socially speaking. Oh, and lets not forget the KKK (if that falls into this category; I think it does) who harassed, intimidated, and killed black people.
Moreover, there is also an issue in cultural differences when assessing the reliability and validity of depressive disorder diagnosis. Karasz found that ethnic minorities are less likely to seek help, due to the believing it is a social issue and so self-management is the sure. Whereas Middle class white diagnose the problem as being biological and so are more likely to seek medical help. This suggests that much of the research on outpatients could be culture bias as ethnic minorities do not seek help in the first place. For a diagnosis to be considered reliable it must be consistent over time and between professions.
Ethnic minorities are also more likely to undertake low-paid, low-skilled work, and the vicious circle that stems from this – inferior housing, poorer living standards, and substandard schools in deprived areas – is actually partly caused by the welfare state system, which institutionalises this discrimination. The unique problems faced by ethnic minorities must be addressed individually, and until recently social policy has failed to do this. Furthermore, the emphasis on tackling crime that has underpinned New Labour's social policy and that of the previous Conservative governments has impacted on ethnic minorities due to the often discriminatory nature of initiatives to cut crime. The ‘stop and search' programme is unfairly targeted toward black youths, to the extent that many believe being black is tantamount to a social problem (McGhee, 2005). Such flaws in British social policy have undoubtedly contributed to a growing sense of isolation amongst ethnic minority groups, and thus it could be argued that social policy is often more harmful than
A stratified society exists when there is an unequal distribution of wealth, power and prestige. In American society, political power and wealth are not distributed equally (Johnson, 1996). There is a general perception that the wealthier those who are, the more powerful and superior they are to the average person. Income, which often determines power, determines an individual’s class economic and political position in society or by social status. Class or socioeconomic status (SES) permeates our social behavior and thought (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2003. p. 2).
The imbalance of power in relationships plays a crucial role in the act of cruelty. At its center, cruelty exists when a majority has the power of the minority with a weakness. Such an example is that of the slaves in early America. African Americans, when brought to America had no financial means (resources), education, nor did they stand a chance in our society especially in governmental affairs. They were told that they were of lesser human value than their white counterparts and the white’s outnumbered them.
These altered what each participant actually saw, therefore not requiring actual confederates. They found levels of conformity similar to those obtained by Asch for women, although not for men. This suggests that Asch’s confederates had acted convincingly in the original study as the results were reproducible using women. A bad point with his study was that the sample was not representative of the target population therefore making it endocentric as all males were used. There has been evidence to suggest that females are more conformist than males, this mean that the findings cannot be applied to women.