Rabies Essay

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Rhadboviridae belongs to the order Mononegavirales. There are more than 175 strains classified into three genuses: Vesiculovirus, Lyssavirus, and Ephemerovirus. Althought his group0 of viruses have a broad range of hosts, Lyssavirus is the only one known to affect humans. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted from one species to another usually by animal bites that can occur anywhere on the body. If rabies is not treated, it is almost always fatal. Only six humans worldwide have ever been known to recover without intensive hospital care. The first one to isolate the rhabdovirus was Dr. Louis Pasteur who prepared a vaccine using dried rabbit neural tissue. After discovering passage of the virus from one rabbit to another, samples of tissue from their central nervous system was dried in ultraviolet (sun) light and found to be stable, so they went to work on a vaccine. The unusual bullet shape of the virion is one of its outstanding characteristics. The virus contains a lipid envelope which is embedded with glycoprotein peplomers. This envelope surrounds a nucleocapsid protein which is helically wound and usually about 70nm by 170 nm. The neocapsid contains the RNA genome. The virion contains a double strand of RNA. There is a short positive strand of RNA and a full length positive strand RNA. During replication, the G protein spikes begin binding to receptors on the host cell surface. It enters the cell through endocytosis. The virion then fuses with a vesicle and begins the uncoating process. The replication takes place in the cytoplasm. All rhabdovirus reproduce in a portion of cytoplasm called the Negri body, which acts as a virus factory. The Negri bodies are about the same size (7 nanometes) and color as a mature red blood cell. The genes are transcribed, processed to functional mRNAs, which are full length positive strand

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