Purpose: In this lab, we will get introduced to using the oscilloscope and its many functions and uses. We will learn how to take AC voltage and period readings by using the oscilloscope. We will also use the oscilloscope to prove the exponential decay and rise of the R-C and R-L circuits. We will show that the time constant for the R-C circuit is equal to RC and the time constant for the R-L circuit is L/R. Equipment: Oscilloscope, Resistance Decade Box, Variable Capacitance Box, Inductor, Capacitance/Inductance Meter, Connecting wires, Function Generator, Multimeter.
The idea was to give sinusoidal input with different frequencies and observe the output voltage through the terminals of capacitor in the system as an output. Input Frequency (Hz) | Vin (mV) | Vout (mV) | Phase (rad) | ∆T | 100 | 1000 | 980 | 0 | 0 | 200 | 1020 | 1000 | 0 | 0 | 500 | 1020 | 960 | 439,6 | 0,14 | 1000 | 984 | 808 | 753,6 | 0,12 | 2000 | 984 | 596 | 879,2 | 0,07 | 5000 | 1020 | 304 | 1256 | 0,04 | 10000 | 1020 | 162 | 1381,6 | 0,022 | 20000 | 1060 | 86 | 1632,8 | 0,013 | 50000 | 1020 | 16 | 1632,8 | 0,0052 | 100000 | 1020 | 17 | 1632,8 | 0,0026 | The first graph above shows us the B/A value asked us in the lab manual. B represents the Vout and A represents Vin amplitude values. Phase graph shows them in the phase form which is obtain by using simple math formula of 2*pi**∆T*Frequency. The graph shown at the left is the graph in dB scale.
Since each loop corresponds to one half-wave length, resonance occurs when the length of the tube is nearly equal to an odd 2 number of quarter wavelengths i.e. L = λ/4, 3λ/4, 5λ/4, etc, or in general, L = n ?/4, n = 1, 3, 5, etc 1 Nicholas J. Pinto and Claudio Guerra-Vela. Department of Physics and Electronics. University of
3) Short circuit the terminals. 4) Measure armature current or line current as the field current is increased. Short circuit test characteristic graph From both tests, here we can find the internal machine impedance (EA from OCC, IA from SCC): Since Xs >> RA , the equation reduces to: Short Circuit Ratio Ratio of the field current required for the rated voltage at open circuit to the field current required for rated armature current at short circuit. OCC and SCC A drawback of this method is that the internal generated voltage EA is measured during the OCC, where the machine can be saturated for large field currents, while the armature current is measured in SCC, where the core is unsaturated. Therefore, this approach is accurate for unsaturated cores only.
Since there was always energy loss in actual practice situation, the calculated natural frequency should be theoretically lower than directly measured natural frequency. In conclusion, this assumption as mentioned above would be proven by analyzing the results. Description of Apparatus Fig.1 A schematic diagram of the main apparatus. Figure 1 showed the plane view of the spring-mass-pulley system that was used in this experiment. As shown in the diagram, the apparatus consisted of a spring, a pulley, a mass less rope (light cord) and a weighted body.
The scientist has a double slit of known separation. Describe the measurements that need to be taken and explain how they are used to find the wavelength of the light. Discuss any necessary safety precautions and how you would arrange the apparatus to improve accuracy. Measurements * w measured with vernier calliper * D measured with a meter rule Finding the wavelength * Use λ=wsD to obtain value for λ Accuracy * Several fringe spaces measured * Centres of fringes used * Five or more fringes measured * Large value for D * D greater or equal to 2m * Dark room * Repeat measurements Safety * Avoid shing laser at a person * Laser safety goggles * Avoid reflections * Warning sign or light Figure 4 shows a stationary wave on a string. The string is tied onto a thin metal bar at A and fixed at B.
A band-pass filter is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range. Optical band-pass filters are of common usage. An example of an analogue electronic band-pass filter is an RLC circuit (a resistor–inductor–capacitor circuit). These filters can also be created by combining a low-pass filter with a high-pass filter.  Bandpass is an adjective that describes a type of filter or filtering process; it is frequently confused with passband, which refers to the actual portion of affected spectrum.
The frequency and amplitude of the longitudinal vibrations of a sensor depends on the length L, elasticity E, and density ρ of the ribbon-like thick film sensor. f =12L√Eρ The resonance frequency changes when there is a small mass loading on the surface of the sensor.A magnetoelastic sensor of mass m0 with initial resonance frequency fo, when subjected to a mass loading (translational, uniformly applied) of Δm demonstrates a decrease in resonance frequency f= -f0 ∆m2m0 Further, a change in the viscosity/density of the medium surrounding a sensor creates a damping effect on the sensor vibrations. The shift in resonance frequency Δf is related to the viscosity η and density ρl of the surrounding medium as ∆f= √πf02πρs d√ηρ where d is the thickness of the magnetoelastic sensor and ρs the density of the sensor.The resonance changes in a magnetoelastic sensor due to changes in the surrounding medium forms the
This must be connected in parallel with the component. The potential difference between two points in an electric circuit is the work done when a coulomb of charge passes between the points. You can calculate the size of a potential difference using this equation: V = W ÷ Q * V is the potential difference in volts, V * W is the work done (energy transferred) in joules, J * Q is the charge in coulombs, C * For example, what is the potential difference if 48 J of energy is transferred when 4 C of charge passes? * Potential difference = 48 ÷ 4 = 12 V Hypothesis- I predict that during the experiment, the resistor will resist and the output would be smaller coming from the resistor whereas the output from the thermistor would be much greater depending on the temperature of the water. I will test this theory by measuring the temperature of my water before the experiment and after.