Assess the Usefulness of Risk Factors in Managing Youth Offenders. This essay will be attempting to explore the usefulness of risk factors, when it comes to managing young offenders. It will begin by defining the key terms ‘risk factors’ and ‘youth offenders’ before outlining some of the most important risk factors commonly connected with young offenders. It will then attempt to examine the ways in which these particular risk factors are used to identify and then manage those young people who commit crime. The essay will be looking at these risk factors and their effects with particular reference to the Youth Justice System, in addition to other agencies.
Juvenile corrections, whether it is in the form of corrections programs or juvenile detention, seek a common goal; to positively alter the delinquent behavior of youths through a multitude of educational, vocational, personal, and social services. Juvenile corrections protect the public by removing the offender from the community, hold the juvenile accountable for his or her behavior, and then successfully restore the youths back to their families, schools, and neighborhoods. The juvenile court system as a whole aims to protect youths and treat them through supervision and rehabilitation while aiming to reduce recidivism rates. Court alternatives are offered throughout the court proceedings. A juvenile can be diverted from the system after the initial intake process and hearing and either is dismissed, referred to another agency such as teen courts or drug courts, or waived to adult court.
This study will also try to offer suggestions as to how further studies can be improved and how to solve the problem of juvenile delinquency. It will also present some of the limitations that can be faced when conducting studies on this topic of juvenile delinquency. Definition of terms Juvenile delinquency- this is the broad-based term given to juveniles who commit crimes. Juveniles are defined as individuals who haven’t reached adulthood or the age of majority. (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-juvenile-delinquency.htm) Delinquency- this is defined as, failure or omission of duty; a fault; a misdeed; an offense; a misdemeanor; a crime.
Social learning theories relate to the explanation of risk factors involving the social processes and individuals prone to criminal activity. The individual’s personal morals, behavior, and environment combined influence learning. Modeling, beliefs, and differential reinforcement are three dominant areas of social learning that provide a foundation for an individual to learn to engage in criminal activity. Modeling the behavior of peers, family, and friends can influence decisions that may lead to criminal activity. Differential reinforcement regarding crime offers the opportunity for an individual to instruct another individual in the commission of crime by reinforcing particular behaviors often but not enforcing punishment.
Abstract Punishment is used in child rearing to decrease the likelihood of a certain behaviour recurring. Punishment can be physical or non-physical. This essay analyses the affect of punishment in: adolescents, in conjunction with reasoning in toddlers, and in relation to child temperament. The use of corporal punishment in adolescents has been linked to increased risks of psychological disorders in adulthood. Research evidence indicates that the use of non-physical punishment has been shown to be necessary to enhance the effectiveness of reasoning in young children and that determining child temperament is crucial for vital for developing optimal discipline strategies.
The assessment chosen: The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). This assessment is used to evaluate the risk of violence for children between the ages of 12 to 18 years old. Explain the relevance of assessing for conduct disorder features/traits in juvenile forensic populations, as well as the reasons for such an assessment. In a juvenile correctional program, this assessment would be relevant. According to Vincent et al.
The word rehabilitation can offer many different meanings. The general meaning of rehabilitation is to make someone better or return them to their previous condition. However, in terms of prisoners, rehabilitation means to reform an individual from a criminal to a law abiding citizen. “Rehabilitation is often thought of in a more narrow definition today—as specific programs applied within the prison setting (or outside) intended to bring about the end of criminal behavior, called desistance, meaning to cease or stop” (Foster, 2006, p. 372). This reformation would be sought through an assortment of programs offering educational and vocational classes, counseling and therapy, and teaching life and social skills.
Mr. Justice believed that more juvenile judicial systems needed to be studied. Concentrating on the best interest of the child, encouraging recovery, and reintegrating them into a productive role in society are important. Many factors come into play when deciding if a child should be tried as an adult, more than just the child are to blame. Greater community participation in the organization of criminal justice, as well as an aptitude of commitment towards society may deter offenders. Juvenile offenders should not be tried as adults, until aspects of their environment are assessed efficiently.
How did the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 change the sentencing process for young people? The 1999 Criminal Evidence Act was introduced for the following reasons; to provide for the referral of offenders under 18 to youth offender panels; to make provision in connection with the giving of evidence or information for the purposes of criminal proceedings; to amend section 51 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994; to make pre-consolidation amendments relating to youth justice; and for connected purposes.’ [27th July 1999] The Act is about improving the effectiveness of the youth court and preventing offending by children and young people. This is now the principal aim of the youth justice system. Changes to the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act gave further reforms to the youth court, these changes created a new sentence of referral to a youth offender panel, known as a Referral Order. A Referral Order will be available for young people convicted for the first time and its primary aim is to prevent re-offending.
Juvenile justice can be defined as the sector of the law applicable to persons not of legal age. Complying with the United Nations Conventions of the Rights of the Child, the juvenile justice system aims to combine the welfare and justice approaches to youth crime, in order to keep the best interests of the child as the most prominent of priorities. However, there remains a considerable list of aims to be addressed when the issue of responding to juvenile justice arises. These include decreasing rates of recidivism, providing rehabilitation into society, and ultimately recognizing that due to mental immaturity and lack of legal knowledge, young offenders require a degree of protection. The extent to which our legal system is able to adequately provide this is at times, questionable.