Punishment Essay

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Punishment A punisher is an event that, when presented immediately following a behavior causes the behavior to decrease in frequency. The event that has been determined as a punisher in particular behavior of an individual at particular event. This event will had the similar function to same individual although it is in the different situation. Principle of punishment is linked to the concept of a punisher which is: If, in a given situation, somebody does something that is follow by a punisher on the spot, it will reduce the percentage of doing the same thing again by that person. (Garry Martin, 2003). Punishment is generally defined as an aversive stimulus that follows an undesirable behavior, and is intended to decrease or eliminate the occurrence of that behavior (Cangelosi 2000). The Virginia Cooperative Extension (2009) identifies four kinds of punishment namely physical, verbal, withdrawal of rewards and penalties. Punishment may take form of informal arrangements such as additional homework, withdrawal of privileges and detention after class to formal sanctions such as exclusion from school and corporal punishment. The goal of punishment is to decrease the target behavior. For an example, in the school, a teacher is punish a student who littering inside the classroom by giving penalty that wrote 100 times the sentences “I'm not littering anymore”. This is an example of punishment, introduce an aversive stimulus (wrote 100 times the sentences “I’m not littering anymore.”) for decrease the frequency of undesirable behavior (littering inside the classroom). The student will decrease the likelihood of littering for the consequences that make by previous experiences, it meet the goal of punishment which is decrease the target behavior. There are two kinds of punishment which is positive punishment and negative punishment. In positive punishment an aversive

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