Public Services Essay

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When looking at crime, it is essential that we explore the definitions of crime and the theories that explain why crime happens and how this affects both individuals and communities. The study of crime is commonly known as “Criminology”. Criminology originated from many other disciplines such as sociology, psychology, biology, geography, law and anthropology. It is generally accepted that there are three main categories that are used to explain why crime happens. To dive deeper into the theories surrounding criminal behaviour we can analyse the three main and biggest theories behind a Criminal and their Behaviour: A) psychological models; B) sociological models; and C) biological models. All infer different methods of control and actions. It’s actually difficult to separate the three categories completely as it is generally accepted that all three theories contribute large factors that play a role in the expression of behaviour. Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains. However, there are some general principles associated with each of the above three paradigms that would be associated with some specific crime control policies. This results in admittedly narrow definition for each of the categories but it does simplify the discussion herein. Psychological Approaches There a many different psychological models of criminal behaviour ranging from early Freudian notions to later cognitive and social psychological models. I cannot review them all. Instead, there are several fundamental assumptions of psychological theories of criminality (and human behaviour in general) that follow. These are: 1. The individual is the primary unit of analysis in psychological theories. 2. Personality is the major motivational and

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