1) Biological, psychological, and social factors in PTSD.
Biological: There are alternations in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus that are linked with fear and memory. There are changes in hormonal and neurochemical systems in managing stress responses. People with PTSD have increased circulating levels of norepinephrine and increased reactivity of adrenergic receptors. The thyroid hormone levels also are increased and this could explain symptoms of the disorder. People with PTSD have low levels of cortisol and high levels of coricotropin-releasing factor. People with PTSD show increased cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, testosterone, and thyroxin activity that lasts over an extended period of time. The sensitivity of the negative-feedback system of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is increased rather than decreased
Psychological: It can be influenced by the person’s subjective interpretation of the event they were in. Experiencing a traumatic event challenges their sense of safety, leading to feelings of vulnerability and powerlessness. Horror, anger, sadness, humiliation and guilt can also occur.
Social: They often blame themselves for not acting the way they should have during the event they experienced. They might think how other people would have acted. Children who live in violent neighborhood or in one of the world’s war zones may also show symptoms of PTSD. People who feel a lack of social support are more likely to develop symptoms. Soldiers who develop PTSD tend to display more avoidance and they blame themselves rather than on other soldiers. When they remember their childhood, they believe their families were less cohesive and communicative than others were.