Like all other societies, Batswana has had negative perceptions and views about mental illness and mentally ill persons. In Botswana, mental illness constitutes only one disease entity called ‘madness’. Persons showing signs of mental illness used to be laughed at, rebuked and ostracized. In addition, families with persons who show signs of mental illness are still discriminated against and stigmatized. Also, the inequalities and disparities in the distribution and allocation of resources in mental health are indicative of the less important status accorded to this population group.
The Health of Black Folk” by Nancy Krieger and Mary Bassett analyze and criticize the ways in which modern society rationalizes the illness in the African American community. There are three different models that the authors criticize for their failure to capture the true cause of so-called racial illnesses. A model is a set of assumptions that a guide a search. Models play a very important role in scientific explanation because it a representation of assumptions about the essential structure and relationships of objects. The authors feel the real reason for the differences in the disease susceptibility are social and class based.
Governmentality can also be about how a person and their self governance can effect them. Self governance seems to be the reason that the people of the Edgewater homeless community are living this way. The main problems lie within themselves; not being able to take accountability for their own actions seems to be a common factor among each of the lumpen people observed by Bourgois and Schonberg. The ways of life of these people are different than those of what society considers normal in an almost endless number of ways. Bourgois and Schonberg observe what they initially believe to be homosexual relationships in the Edgewater community.
One subculturalist that believes crime is a collective activity is Albert Cohen. Cohen argues that crime is a collective response to strain. Individuals join together and form a subculture to cope with the feelings of strain. Strain is the gap between society’s goals and legitimate means of achieving them. But due to poor educational achievement and low paid manual work they are unable to gain these goals.
The results were that the chance of developing a cold correlated with stress index scores. The life event lowered the immune function and increased vulnerability to the virus. However there were several problems with this research, one of which was that it was an indirect study- there was no direct measure of the immune system for example no blood test or medical test was taken as evidence. Consequently we cannot determine how far the participant’s immune system was affected in relation to the stress. Another key problem was that there were was no direct manipulation of the independent variable so the study doesn’t tell us which element of the stress index is most important and related to the decrease in immune function.
The Black scholars were angry and insisted there was other documentation proposing intelligence was not inherent from one or both parents so there would be no benefit to apply these criteria to describe African – American behavior. African – American scholars worried close relationships with in the predominately white community of social scientists and prevailing forces already biased against African – American people limited the scope of the theorists by preconceived beliefs, providing skewed theories and data that provided negative and misrepresented the behavior of African -Americans. Theoretical Value This article goes on explain flawed was data collected because the white behaviorists accompanied by highly conservative black professions approached the black community to conducted research. Researchers broke agreements and rules when using human subjects in the black community. The data collected was used to develop erroneous theories between blacks and whites in the areas of biogenetics, cognitive and intelligence.
A few examples of these initiatives have been wedged in a restorative mode. There are weaknesses in community psychology due to it not being developed and on the same level with the professional aspects of clinical, counselling, educational and research psychology. Community psychology is looked upon as a solution to lighten the progressive psychological forms dueto political disturbances. It continues to progress in South
Martin Luther King led a series of campaigns in the North starting in 1966, after succeeding in challenging the voting and segregation issues of the. Southern states. His overall aims for these campaigns was to challenge the poor living and economic conditions of the American Americans living there. However, these campaigns proved to be most challenging for King because the same tactics that he had used to bring change in the South were no longer effective. This is partly due to a combination of factors of which are poor planning and tactics, African American violence and a lack of federal government support.
Hughes writes about not only individuals whose dreams have been limited but also communities whose American dreams have been put on hold. Blacks were not able to progress in society because they were not able to receive the same education as whites therefore the few that fought through the racism and criticism such as Hughes gained a voice. They gained a voice to articulate the influence that African-Americans held in society. Hughes was not afraid to stand up for what he believed despite of what others thought. He wanted the world to know that skin color was not a factor when it came to your social standing in the world.
The experience of pain no doubt has a way of changing the worldview of the sufferers of the pain. This is why genuine concern for the sufferers by the caregivers is needed. Billy Graham sums up the challenge of responding to sufferers in asserting that understanding the grief of others will be is difficult unless the caregiver has been in their shoes. In the words of Howard J. Clinebell, “the basic norm in the society is being married.” This view is accepted worldwide. Not only is being married a norm, singleness goes with stigmatization in the average African society where singleness is not encouraged.