I will lastly concentrate on discussing the applications of his theory to therapy today. Freud devised the best known and arguably the most widely studied and universally talked about of all the personality theories. Central to his ideology was the belief that instinctual biological urges, primarily sexual and aggressive are the forces that motivate every aspect of an individual’s behaviour. One of the fundamental notions in Freud’s theory, concerning his view of human personality, is the
Influential Theories of Child Development Erik Erickson “Erik Erikson refined aspects of Freud’s theory into his psychosocial theory. According to Erikson, each stage of development is defined by a conflict, which leads to opportunities for personal growth” (Essa). There are 8 universal stages that spanned from childhood to adulthood; however the first four will be discussed. 1. Trust vs. Mistrust.
Integrity vs. Despair. These are the different stages in summary by (Kendra Cherry, About.com/Psychology) “Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust * The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.2 * Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers. * If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for.
I truly believe that Erikson’s theory is based on the way children grow and develop throughout their lifetime. Erik H. Erikson (1902-1994) developed his psychosocial development theory based on the premise that cognitive and social development occur hand in hand and cannot be separated” (Morrison, 2009 p.128). Erikson is most known for his work and development of Freud’s theory of psychosocial theory of development. “Erik Erikson modified Freud’s theory and extended it through the adult years” (Rathus, 2011, p. 6). Erikson’s theory entailed eight stages, which are “defined by conflict, which leads to opportunities for personal growth” (Essa, 2007, p.128).
Erikson’s Stages of Development Stage Ages Basic Conflict Summary Infancy 1 to 2 years Trust vs. Mistrust The child, well - handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism. Badly handled, s/he becomes insecure and mistrustful. Early Childhood 2-3 years Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of autonomy. Failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool 3-5 years Initiative vs.
Ego, is Freud’s term for the psychic structure that attempts to balance the instinctual demands of the id with social realities and expectations. Superego is Freud’s term for the psychic structure that corresponds to an internal moral guardian or conscience, Nevid, J. S. (2013). 2. Give a brief explanation of one of the Neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theories, including the theorist and key concepts. The Iindividual Psychology theory which emphasizes the unique potential of each individual was develop by theorist Alfred Adler, Nevid, J. S. (2013).
4. Between 9 and 12 years old, is one of confidence versus inferiority. Self-confidence is built in the primary school years to high school. 5. Between 13 to 19 years old, the adolescence development is a question between identity and role confusion.
He emphasized that psycho-development and personality growth is a continuous process, not terminated at physical maturity. This paper is going to examine Erickson’s theory, review the eight stages of man, and discuss the application on future clinical practice. Life Span Theory Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is based on the epigenetic principle, which states that development unfolds in a series of predetermined stages, that there is an optimal time for the ascendancy of a stage, and that the resolution of early stages greatly influences the outcomes of later stages (Dunkel & Sefcek, 2009). According to Erikson’s theory each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces; this presents the individual with an inherent task or conflict that they must successfully resolve to proceed with development. Each crisis stage relates to a corresponding life stage and its inherent challenges.
In this assignment, we were given the task of discussing Erik Erikson’s theory on psychosocial development and relate it in a South African context. Erik Erikson is a psychologist that studied under the influence of Sigmund Freud and he was really into the idea of unconscious conflict. He focused on children’s development in society across their entire lifespan and on a social level whereas Freud focused more on the biological and sexual stages of development that was said to have ended at the adolescent stage. He’s theory of development has been divided into eight stages which will be discussed. Erikson’s theory of development focuses on psychological and social aspects of development.