The final component of the unconscious mind is the superego. This is the morality principle. It develops in later childhood through the process of identification with both parent and this leads to internalisation of moral rules and social norms. If the ego fails to balance the demands of both the superego and id, the conflicts can lead to psychological disorders. The ego tries to maintain the balance between the id and
Sigmund Freud is recognised as being one of the great forefathers of modern day psychology. He wrote at a time when society was much more inhibited than it is today, perhaps his views and theories are representative of the socio historical context in which he wrote and conducted his enquires? His theories have done much to develop our understandings of the psyche. Freud’s theory of psycho sexual development is a bio social theory, one that explains the Biological (instinctual) and the Social (Socialization). We live in a world that is in many ways characterised by restraint, conformity and inhibition, Some of Freud’s main works contribute to our understanding of our relationships toward this social world.
This quote suggests that Erikson viewed identity at an individual level. He saw identity as being a lifelong process that involved resolving normative crisis between individual needs and social demands. ( Phoenix, A,, pg 53) Erikson had identified eight stages of identity development, beginning in infancy to old age, Although he viewed identity as a lifelong process, he believed the fifth stage to be the most significant. This stage embarks upon adolescence. Erikson seen adolescence as a period of 'Psychosocial Moratorium' meaning that it is a socially accepted period of time for young people to try out different roles so that ultimately they discover who they are.
Erikson’s theory entailed eight stages, which are “defined by conflict, which leads to opportunities for personal growth” (Essa, 2007, p.128). Conflicts are a combination of both the person and relationships with others, and focuses on social task that need to emerge in each of the eight stages for a healthy development (Essa, 2007). In his theory, he suggests that personality continues to develop in a series of eight stages throughout the life span. Stage 1 is Trust vs. Mistrust (birth through 18months) during this stage the infant develops trust. Stage 2 is Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18 months to three years).
These two conflicting components are controlled by the ego. When the id and superego are imbalanced, abnormal behaviour may occur. Freud also expresses the importance of childhood experiences, he stated that our experiences as a child play a major part in adult development. Distressing memories may become unconscious and may be the cause of abnormal behaviour. Fifthly, he expressed the importance of psychosexual development.
This essay will use two of these theories to offer a psychological interpretation of a fictional character and by doing so evaluate the merit of the hypotheses. Firstly the Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality put forward by Sigmund Freud, followed by the Trait Theory of Personality by Gordon Allport. Although both of the theories have developed since Freud and Allport, this essay will focus on the original theories as seen by their creators. The fictional character in use will be Dmitri Fyodorovich Karamazov, henceforth referred to as Mitya, from Fyodor Dostoyevsky's “The Brothers Karamazov”. Freud himself called this book “the most magnificent novel ever written”(Freud, 1927).
(2 pts) a. Psychosocial Theory- Erik Erikson describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from birth into late adulthood. Through each stage the person meets, and expectantly masters, new challenges. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. Although, mastery of a stage is not required to advance to the next stage. Each stage is characterized by a psycho social crisis of these two conflicting forces.
University of Phoenix Online PSY 405/Dr.Cree February 28, 2011 Dispositional Personality Theories With personalities they take part in an important part of everyday life. From Freud to Horney they have produced diverse theories to assist in explaining the development of personality. Within the paper we will discuss Dispositional theories and, how they influence personalities and interpersonal relationships. We will analyze their strengths and limitations and how they can transform personality and influence our life and how we conduct ourselves. In our matrix we will discuss Allport’s psychology of the individual theory, and the trait and factor theory.
He emphasized that psycho-development and personality growth is a continuous process, not terminated at physical maturity. This paper is going to examine Erickson’s theory, review the eight stages of man, and discuss the application on future clinical practice. Life Span Theory Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is based on the epigenetic principle, which states that development unfolds in a series of predetermined stages, that there is an optimal time for the ascendancy of a stage, and that the resolution of early stages greatly influences the outcomes of later stages (Dunkel & Sefcek, 2009). According to Erikson’s theory each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces; this presents the individual with an inherent task or conflict that they must successfully resolve to proceed with development. Each crisis stage relates to a corresponding life stage and its inherent challenges.
Erikson’s theory of development focuses on psychological and social aspects of development. He divided he’s theory into eight stages, each stage facing a crisis or a challenge that needed to be overcome. The crisis or challenge forces the individual to adjust according to the two poles that oppose one another. The crisis or challenge brings about an interaction between the individual and society in the aim that the individual learn from the experience and takes on possible standards set by society. There is a solution with each crisis and that is the synthesis between the two opposing poles.