Psychology Term Paper

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Psychology Final Term Paper Erica Lighter Vanier College Author Note This paper was written for Psychology 350-303 VA, Section 00002, taught by Karen White. Summary of Articles: The article “It’s Not Discipline, It’s a Teachable Moment” is concerned with discipline, punishment, reinforcement, and parents’ ineffective disciplinary methods. The author, Parker-Pope, provides the opinion of a number of different doctors to demonstrate that punishment is an unsuccessful approach to changing the undesired behaviors of a child, and that the punishments used by parents often end up reinforcing a bad behavior. Parker-Pope emphasizes that defining discipline, teaching, positive feedback, and clear rules and boundaries are much more effective means of behavior modification than punishment. She clarifies that short time-outs can be effective with young children, while involvement and parental monitoring are most effective with teenagers; in essence, it is important to create an atmosphere where children feel in control and do not feel victimized. The author concludes by stating that the issue of ineffective discipline may be getting worse, in part because it is more time consuming to reinforce good behavior, and in part because of new technologies. In his interview with Ron Brandt, Alfie Kohn stresses that it is important to work with children rather than to do things to children. Kohn sees both punishments and rewards as negative; he clarifies that, according to his beliefs as well as a vast number of studies, extrinsics serve to manipulate children and are not effective over time. Indeed, he emphasizes that because of extrinsic motivators, such as verbal praise and grades, intrinsic motivation tends to evaporate. He states that positive feedback that is informative can be beneficial, but praise is

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