Psychology Stm and Ltm Aqa Spec

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Outline and evaluate research into STM and LTM. 12 Marks One key study into STM was researched by Peterson and Lloyd to 24 students that went to their university. Whereby an experimenter said a constant syllable to the participant followed by a 3 digit number – and immediately after hearing the syllable the participant had to count backwards in 3’s or 4’s until told to stop. Then the participant was asked to recall the syllable. They found that participants remembered about 90% when there was only a second interval; but this dropped to 2% when an 18 second interval was emplaced. Thus concluding verbal repetition prevents rehearsal of items being stored in STM decay quickly, so items last approximately 10 seconds in STM without rehearsal. One research conducted by Bahrick et al in America demonstrated the considerable duration of LTM by asking people of various ages to put names to faces from their high school year book. 48 years on people were about 70% accurate. There was a free recall test, photo recognition test and name recognition test. Results showed that free recall of names was much poorer; so people could not so easily retrieve VLTMs without a cue. His results suggested that a lot of information is stored in our memories which can only be jogged via recognition from pictures or their names being said, rather than just a recall test where you’d have no visual cues. So recognition helps people remember things much more easily and for longer. Petersons STM study was argued to be high in internal validity, and this was mainly due to the fact that instructions to participants were standardised, repetitions of consonants or tridiagrams was prevented and extraneous variables were controlled, thus meaning the experiment had high internal validity and also made it easier to replicate. However a problem with the study was the fact it is actually challenged by
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