Purging anorexia is achieved by vomiting, using laxatives or diuretics (Smith and Segal, 2014). The signs and symptoms of an anorexic are; dramatic weight loss, feeling fat even though the person may be underweight, fixation on body image, harshly critical of appearance and denial that they may be too thin. Symptoms of a purging anorexic may include; using dieting pills, laxatives or diuretics, vomiting after eating and compulsive exercising. There are also food behavior signs of an
Discuss psychological explanations of one eating disorder (8+16 marks) The DSM defines eating disorders as ‘illnesses in which the victims suffer severe disturbances in their eating behaviours and related thoughts and emotions’. It is argued that the preoccupation with food in many Western cultures, coupled with the obsession of losing weight has led to the emergence of food and eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa (AN). As society has developed its understanding of the causes of eating disorders, it has become apparent that they are as much a mental disorder as they are a physical disorder. Thus psychological explanations have emphasised the risk factors of media, culture, personality and childhood experiences in the cause of Anorexia Nervosa. The DSM (IV) states four criteria for AN.
Through reviewing the relationships that are there between Maslow’s theory and biological factors we will be in a position to see some focused similarities as well as its upcoming. Analyzing some of the main tenets of humanistic theory with some of the biological explanations will help us to be enlightened on different views of every personality theory. Personality is basically defined as the complex of all the attributes which are possessed by individuals and which uniquely defines their temperamental, behavioral, mental and emotional characteristics from the other people (Howard &Miriam, 2008).
The importance of Body Mass Index (BMI) Obesity is the accumulation of adipose (fatty) tissue in the body. This is now considered by the world health organisation to be a public health problem, hence it is a good practise to monitor and be aware of service user’s body mass index (BMI).There can be a genetic predisposition to gain weight, the risk is increased when parents themselves, or close relatives are obese. Also inadequate physical activity often combined with ‘bad eating habits’ cause an imbalance in the amount of energy taken in and expanded. It is also important to look at other factors such as hormonal imbalance and the ingestion of medication e.g. corticoids and antidepressants.Previously considered as an aesthetic problem, obesity is now regarded as a real illness.
Anorexia nervosa is basically an obsessive fear of gaining weight. It is when a person has a loss of appetite and a distorted image of him/herself and body. When a noticeable weight loss happens in an abnormally short amount of time, it is commonly linked to this disorder. Bulimia nervosa is when a person does an act called “binging and purging.” In this case, the victim of this disorder tends to over-eat, but when this person is done, he or she forces the food out of the body. Normally, this is done, because
Two main eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia. People with anorexia have a great fear of weight gain and have a view of their body size and shape. As a result, they strive to keep a very low body weight. Some restrict their food intake by dieting, fasting, or excessive exercise. Bulimia is characterized by habitual binge eating.
Weight stigma is prevalent in contemporary society. It is a negative attitude exhibited towards overweight or obese individuals through bias and prejudice in response to their perceived excess weight (Wott & Carels’, 2010). Weight stigma is a deleterious perception reinforced through media, medical and educators’ practices, and societal views pertaining to obesity possibly leading to poor selfesteem, low body image, interpersonal problems, depression, and reduced educational and vocational opportunities (Puhl & Heuer, 2009; Wott & Carels’, 2010; Wang, Brownell, & Wadden, 2004; Thomas, Hyde, Karunaratne, Herbert & Komesaroff, 2008). It is hypothesised that weight stigma has a negative effect on the psychological and physical wellbeing of obese individuals with greater episodes of stigmatization resulting in higher rates of depression, increased binge eating and poorer weight loss outcomes. To combat rising rates of obesity a more multidimensional approach looking at individual and socio-cultural dynamics is required (Thomas et al., 2008).
Media vs. Body Image Body image refers to a person's self-perception of his or her body type and body size. This image is sometimes in keeping with the reality of a person's body size but often quite disparate from that actuality. When a disconnect exists between perceived and actual body size, harmful eating and dieting behaviors can ensue. Understanding body image provides insight into the underlying cause of severe eating disorders and unhealthy obsession with weight control.
Obesity as Social Stigma Compulsive overeating (binging but not purging) is most often considered a bad habit that can easily be changed. On the contrary, compulsive overeating is an eating disorder that is more properly defined as an addiction rather than a simple habit. Overeaters use eating as a means of hiding from their emotions and coping with the stress and problems of their lives, turning to food for comfort. Compulsive overeating is characterized by uncontrollable eating that results in weight gain that may lead to obesity. According to the American Obesity Association (2002), obesity is a “complex, multi-factorial chronic disease involving environmental (social and cultural) and genetic, physiologic, metabolic, behavioral and psychological components.” AOA points out that approximately 127 million adults in the U.S. are overweight, with 60 million being obese.
Type two diabetes, is a condition which is more common in the world today and is also known as hyperglycemia. This condition is a condition in the human body in which your glucose (sugar) levels rise higher than normal. This condition can be caused by our poor eating habits, being overweight, not enough exercise. Type two diabetes; I feel is more common do to the obesity rate in the world today. I have numerous family members that suffer from this disease and all of them are