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Psychological Perspectives Essay

  • Submitted by: chesca05
  • on March 7, 2014
  • Category: Psychology
  • Length: 1,901 words

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Below is an essay on "Psychological Perspectives" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

This essay describes and evaluates the main strengths and weaknesses of psychoanalysis, behaviourist, humanist and biological perspectives.
The psychoanalytic perspective is based on the work of Freud and was used as a 'talking cure' where under guidance of a therapist patients speak openly about their problems and feelings. Freud's theories about the structure of the mind and the development of personality is based on his idea that events during childhood significantly impact behaviour as an adult and that behaviour is determined by the unconscious mind. His theories stemmed from Freud's interest in hysteria when his patients were suffering from a physical illness without any apparent physical cause and was the first theory to focus on psychological causes. He identified three different levels of consciousness, these being the conscious which is what we are aware of, the preconscious which is made up of memories that can be recalled and the unconscious where memories, desires and fears which would cause anxiety are repressed. He believed unconscious conflict occurred between the three theoretical constructs of the mind, the id, the ego and the superego. The id operates on the pleasure principle where unconscious urges and desires are stored. It is present from birth and works to avoid pain and gain immediate pleasure. Freud believed the id consists of two main instincts, Eros, the life or sex drive and involves self-preservation and sexual desires fuelled by a psychic energy force called libido and Thantos, the death instinct which channels into aggression towards others that interfere with gratification of the libido. The ego is the rational mind, it develops in childhood and operates on the reality principle, it negotiates between the id and the superego to determine if you can have what you want. The superego is your conscience and is based on the morals learnt from your parents. The ego and superego develop as the child goes through five stages of...

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