Psychology- as explored through the eyes of Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow When Carl Jung says, “Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves”, he very aptly describes the role that Psychology plays in exploring and examining the processes of the human brain and how that impacts our behaviors and personality. Comparing the theories of Jung and Maslow could take hours since each one had enough to say about what their beliefs were about the human condition. But while Carl Jung focused on how the unconscious affected our personality (Introversion and Extraversion), Abraham Maslow focused on the integration of self (Self-Actualization Theory). Jung believed that there were active centers in the unconscious
He believed in single "drive" or motivating force behind our behavior, claiming that the desire we have to fulfill our potentials becomes closer and closer to our ideals. He felt each person was unique and no previous theory applied to all people. Adler's theory included these four aspects: the development of personality, striving towards superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality. Alfred came up with the term inferiority complex. He described this as feelings of lack of worth.
This is the contradicting of Jung. Jung has analysis himself to experience the unconscious through his dreams and fantasia Jung believe that he was strong enough to make dangerous journey and come back to talk about it. His goal was to understand the unconscious from the purpose viewpoint of scientist. Ellis thoughts are that society is more disturbs and it more inclusive and exact “people disturb themselves by thing that have happen to them. And by the view, feelings, and actions” (p16) Horney’s (1950) also Adler writes that our Emotional reactions and lifestyle are associated with our basic beliefs and are therefore cognitively created.
He differed with Freud that social and cultural influences have an important role in molding human development, rather than sexual urges and pleasure He believed that humans are rational and their feelings, thoughts and actions are mostly controlled by the ego. Erikson believed that in all stages of psychosocial development we are presented challenges, and have a responsibility and the ability to achieve a positive outcome from the crisis experienced. I agree with Erikson, I believe that conforming to societies standards in all stages evolves more from pleasing our ego than pleasing our sexual desires. Like Erikson, I agree that there are more stages to psychosocial development than Freud’s theory. I do not agree that psychosocial growth stops after adolescents.
Describe the four major theories of personality (psychodynamic, trait or five-factor model, humanistic, and social-cognitive) and identify advantages and disadvantages of each theory. The psychodynamic theory of personality revolves around Sigmund Freud’s findings. He believed that the mental processes of the brain were unconscious and that people had three levels of awareness; the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The unconscious, being the most important, contains thoughts, feelings, memories, and desires that have influence over the day-to-day aspects of people’s lives without them being aware of it. The personalities of people were also split into three sections; the Id, Ego, and Superego.
A philosopher such as Freud would agree with me because he argued that our Conscience is a construct of the mind. Freud did not believe in any absolute moral law therefore the content of our conscience is shaped by our experiences - our conscience is learned. He argued that the human mind is split into three separate parts. The id is basic instincts and desires such as hunger, which are present at birth. The ego balances the desires and needs of both the id and the super ego.
Psychodynamic Theories Introduction goes here. Key Figures Sigmund Freud The father of psychoanalysis, Freud based his theories on the unconscious mind, infantile sexuality and the Oedipal complex, and repression. In addition, he proposed a three-part psychological structure in the Id, considered the pleasure principle, Ego, also known as the reality principle, and Superego, which is the internalized moral principle. According to Thornton (2010), “Freud’s innovative treatment of human actions, dreams, and indeed of cultural artifacts as invariably possessing implicit symbolic significance has proven to be extraordinarily fruitful, and has had massive implications for a wide variety of fields including psychology, anthropology, semiotics, and artistic creativity and appreciation” (para 2). Alfred Adler In 1911, Alfred Adler formed the school of Individual Psychology as a reaction to the hostile response he received from members of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.
Freud assumed that our behavior is caused by unconscious thoughts, our desires and impulses which is also how human behaviour is explained in the psychodynamic approach. Psychodynamic approach concentrates on many different factors that may have caused psychological distress, such as childhood experiences, our current and past relationships and exploring the things we do without even being aware of it. Another very important and powerful tool is to use this therapy to interpret the transference relationship. The psychodynamic counselling sessions are more dynamic as the therapist is trying to help the patient in fewer sessions possible comparing to psychoanalysis. This is why the counselor usually presents himself as a ‘blank screen’ and lets the client act out and projects his feelings on to the therapist.
His theory is compared to the unseen floating Mass of a floating iceberg; where the unconscious contents far surpass in quantity the information that is in our conscious awareness. Freud maintained his stand by stating that when it comes to understanding personality, one must expose the unconscious. Due to the fact that the unconscious can be disguised to cover up the true meaning of the material it holds, the unconscious content cannot be observed directly. Therefore, you must interpret the unconscious in clues- slips of the tongue, fantasies, and dreams- to understand the unconscious process that direct behavior. For example, a slip of the tongue may be interpreted as revealing the speakers unconscious sexual desire.
Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theories are those propounded by Sigmund Freud, which further describe the conflict among instincts, reasons, and conscience. Although many different psychodynamic theories exist, they all emphasize unconscious motives and desires, as well as the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. Psychodynamic theory is a view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs. Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of experiences, the unconscious, and emotions that shape one’s personality. It is based on three main assumptions: 1.