Running Head: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Introduction This paper is intended to discuss the psychoanalytic theory as developed by Sigmund Feud. The paper will also discuss the differences between the relational and isolated-mind view of human and emotion distress. I will also discuss the Heinz Kohut’s psychology of the self. I will also take time to highlight the differences between a theory that understands emotional distress as emanating from the inside of the patient alone versus theories that understand distress as emanating from the relational contexts in which self objects needs are not being met. Further still, I will discuss the differences between the theories that see the patient’s behavior as coming from patients mind alone versus the theories that see the patient as reacting to his/her environment.
A comparison of the Behaviourist perspective and the Psychodynamic perspective in the context of health and social care The behaviourist perspective focuses on classical and operant condition. Behaviourists argue that, as behaviour can be learnt, it can also be unlearnt. Within health care this approach could be used in ‘aversion therapy’ whereby patients can be conditioned to avoid certain damaging behaviours such as drinking alcohol or smoking. By linking the substance with a drug that causes nausea or other unpleasant side effects the patient can be taught to avoid the substance. On the other hand the psychodynamic perspective would consider that people acquire an addictive personality because they are stuck in the ‘oral’ stage of development and compensate for their feelings of under gratification by smoking, drinking, or eating too much.
The aim is to condition the patient to associate the undesirable behaviour with an aversive stimulus. This then leads to a suppression of the undesirable behaviour. The undesirable behaviours aversion therapy is used for include alcoholism, smoking and drug abuse. Before therapy the unconditional stimulus (UCS) would get an unconditional response (UCR). In aversion therapy, a neutral stimulus (NS) would be associated with a UCS.
The unconscious mind is when you are doing or thinking something without being alert or aware that you are doing it. Along the idea of the unconscious mind Freud also developed the concept of the ‘ID’, the ‘Ego’ and the ‘Superego’. The id is described as an impulsive, selfish side to our personality which is ruled by a pleasure principle, the superego is the moral part of our personality which recognises right from wrong; and our ego is the part of our mind which tries to rationalise and arbitrate both sides of our thoughts. Freud believed that there were two main causes of abnormality in general. One of these was childhood traumas and the idea that a bad memory from our childhood is so traumatic that it buries itself in our subconscious.
Although both therapy forms reduced the phobia, SIT also inoculated patients from future phobias/stressors, proving it to be the more effective method by dealing with current and long-term future stressors. Additionally, Sheehy and Horan (2004) backed up SIT too by studying the effect of it on first
Operant conditioning displays addicts change their behaviour in response to changes in the environment, such as rewards and punishments. Susceptibility of a person in behavioural models assume that a person would be most susceptible to addiction during both the initiation phase (initial rewards can shape future behaviour) and the maintenance phase ( because continued rewards can maintain behaviour). The behavioural model also assumes that all individuals are equally susceptible to developing an addictive behaviour, however if a person managed to give up their addiction, relapse might be less likely if they have 'unlearned' the addictive behaviour. During maintenance within the behavioural theory of addictive behaviour, it has been observed that burst firing Dopamine activity occurs in addicts not just when drug activity is taking place but instead before the consumption begins. For instance it has been observed that Cocaine addicts’ reward systems respond when merely put in a particular situation surrounding their addiction, likewise similar findings have been found in cigarette users, e.g., Dopamine neurons firing in response.
The clients’ interpretation of the pictures can possibly indicate unconscious desires, thoughts and troubles, much like with free association. Psychodynamic therapies work more effectively for different mental disorders and the effectiveness of these methods has often been questioned. For example, psychodynamic therapies are mainly only effective for neurotic disorders. For examples, the use of psychodynamic therapies to effectively treat mental illness would be with clients who have a moderate anxiety disorder, as it can give the client an understanding of what is causing their distress and anxiety issues, but non effective use for it would be using it to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia, as
Purely physiological explanations for mental illnesses tend toward assuming that what happens in the chemistry of the brain should replace what is sometimes called the “mind.” But psychological explanations of depression emphasize that the mind and body are distinct. Though psychologists usually recognize the affect of the brain on the mind, they tend to emphasize personal experiences, ways of thinking and learned behavior. Many of the proposed psychological causes for depression could also be explained or understood in terms of underlying spiritual issues. We will consider this below, but in this section the terms are laid out as they are explained by secular psychologists. Psychoanalytical Explanations.
Therapy for Mood Disorder So how do you treat depression? Basically, treatments fall into 3 categories: psychological, biological, and pharmocological. In psychological therapy, specifically, psychodynamic therapy, depression is thought to be derived from a repressed sense of loss and from anger unconsciously turned inward. Therefore, psychoanalytic treatment tries to help the patient achieve insight into the repressed conflict, and often encourages the outward release of the hostility that is being directed inward. Recent studies have shown that a form of psychotherapy that concentrates on present-day interactions between the depressed person and the social environment is quite effective for alleviating unipolar depression..
Neutral hypnosis is when a person is hypnotized before any hypnotic suggestions are given. Changes appear to occur to data points to change in the way different cognitive systems of the brain communicate in neutral hypnosis and may account for the experience subjects have of mental absorption, reduction of spontaneous thoughts and sense of detachment" (Beattie-Moss March, 2014). Hypnosis as a brain research tool for hysterical blindness, hysterical paralysis, and visual neglect have been used with promising effects. Conclusion Hypnosis has a brighter future than it did before neuro-imaging. There is still a lot of research to be done to lend credence to this form of mental suggestion.