PSYCHODYNAMIC THEO Psychodynamic Theories Mike Smith, Christine Smith, Arvan Thompson, Marcy Rigsby PSY/405 Dr. Dave Brueshoff October 17, 2011 Psychodynamic Theories The first psychoanalytic theory was conceived by Sigmund Freud (Meyers, 2007). This was the basis for what we have today regarding psychodynamic personality theories. Sigmund Freud’s contribution to this theory includes his thoughts on the stages of psychosexual development, conscious and unconscious minds, and defense mechanisms. This made way for other great psychologists to offer contributions to psychodynamic personality theories, like Alfred Adler’s individual psychological theory, Melanie Klein’s object relations theory, Carl Jung’s analytical psychology theory, and finally, Karen Horney’s psychoanalytic social theory. In this analysis we will look at two specific parts of analyzing psychodynamic theories.
He has paved many paths in the psychology field of study. Freud explored observable behavior and rather than changing the environment looked for alternate reasons for the behavior. Freud’s theory of psychodynamic perspective stated that all behaviors, both ordinary and unordinary are controlled by the unconscious mind. Freud’s research led him to discover that the unconscious mind controlled his patients’ behavior. Freud was a neurologist by degree but used his background to explore areas in the psychological field.
Psychology- as explored through the eyes of Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow When Carl Jung says, “Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves”, he very aptly describes the role that Psychology plays in exploring and examining the processes of the human brain and how that impacts our behaviors and personality. Comparing the theories of Jung and Maslow could take hours since each one had enough to say about what their beliefs were about the human condition. But while Carl Jung focused on how the unconscious affected our personality (Introversion and Extraversion), Abraham Maslow focused on the integration of self (Self-Actualization Theory). Jung believed that there were active centers in the unconscious
By this, the superego and the id are balanced and form the character's identity, an integrated self. Another very important and appropriate part for a psychoanalytic interpretation of 'The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde' is the return of the repressed that Freud describes in his theory of psychoanalysis. Society, its norms and taboos suppress the antisocial individual desires which nevertheless exist in the subconscious. Stevenson's novel 'is one of the most famous literary expressions of the uncanny' (Meyer 138). That means something that should have stayed unknown but still appears is revealed by the return of the repressed.
Psychodynamic Theorists Paper David K. DuBose Psych 500 October 22, 2012 Angela J. W. Steele, Psy.D Psychodynamic Theorists There have been several theories over the years that have defined personality development. First, Freud and his influence on the development of personality will be discussed. Secondly, how analyst that followed Freud dissented from his viewpoint. Third, the links between theorists in the psychoanalytical theory groups will be explored. Finally, other psychoanalytical concepts will be discussed.
Psychoanalysis and Self Psychology Although Heinz Kohut started out with classical psychoanalysis and followed the theory laid out by Freud himself, it is interesting to see how Kohut’s ideas evolved with time, as they were affected by his own clinical experiences. As he began to develop his own theories about people, Kohut started to separate from the classic view until he completely abandoned it and created self psychology. And, although I appreciate the importance of Freud’s work and feel that his contributions to the field of psychology are immense, there is something about Kohut’s work that resonates with me much more than classical psychoanalytical theory. Freud saw human nature as riddled with conflict and driven by instincts (Freud, 1923). He viewed childhood as dominated by conflictual sexuality and personality as an intricate net of impulses and defenses (Mitchell & Black, 1995).
Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21). “The psychoanalytical theory views personality as biologically based, relatively unchangeable and determined by the need to control sexual and aggressive instincts which are unconscious in nature” (Rust & Golombok, 1989, 131). Sigmund Freud was the founder of the psychoanalytical approach to personality although many academics have expounded on his research since then (Bernstein, 2001; 125). This contrasts with the humanistic theory which was adopted by leading 20th Century psychologists Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow (Nicholas, 2008; 226). Robert Ewen suggests that
Carl Jung saw the psyche as being the mind but admits the soul’s mystery. He put most of his research to base on the unconscious and one of the serious statements he gave is that the beauty about the unconscious is that it is unconscious really and therefore not touchable. This means that it cannot be studied through direct approach. This comes as unconformity with Freud’s model which is based on collective unconscious through the concept of uncanny inexplicable connectedness and synchronicity that all people share. (Wise geek).
The second level is where the difference between Freud and Jung are really evident and this level is called the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious is made up of the past of the entire species. According to Jung, it is largely responsible for myths, legends and religious
'It just goes to show there's nothing like confidence'" (295). Yet when Carter was asked by John Haffenden what Fevvers means by this, she replied, "It's actually a statement about the nature of fiction, about the nature of her narrative" (90). The more you look closely at this novel, the more you realize just how literal Carter was being in that reply. More than any other of her works of fiction, Nights at the Circus takes as its subject the hypnotic power of narrative, the ways in which we construct ourselves and our world by narrative means, the materiality of fiction and the fictionality of the material world, and the contract between writer and reader that, according to Carter, invites the reader at the end of this book "to take one further step into the fictionality of the narrative, instead of coming out of it and looking at it as though it were an artefact" (Haffenden 91). It is not just Fevvers who triumphs at having fooled Walser.