Outline and evaluate biological treatments of depression. 8 + 16 marks In the 1960s MAOIs were introduced after accidentally discovering that noradrenaline (a neurotransmitter) was a contributing factor in depression. MAOIs work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme which flushes noradrenaline out of the synapse. This means that there is more noradrenaline available in the synapse which will, hopefully, result in relieving the symptoms of depression. MAOIs were effective for some people, but they came with severe side effects and in some cases even death when taken with certain food and drink such as marmite and red wine due to a sudden and massive increase in blood pressure.
MAOI’s are the most controversial and are used on a very limited and closely monitored basis because they are very easy to overdose and have severe adverse reactions too, these are monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Some doctors may also prescribe stimulants such as Adderall to patients to help jump start them, leaving them with a feeling of “on the go” rather than feeling low. Electroconvulsive therapy is also being used to treat severe forms of clinical depression this is also rather controversial. A patient is anesthetized and electricity is passed bilaterally or unilaterally through his or her brain causing a seizure to in essence jump start their brain, causing the patient to have a feel good feeling. With ECT the bilateral proves to be
Unit 4222-605 Recognise indications of substance misuse and refer individuals to specialists 1.1 Alcohol is misused when it is drunk excessively - the recommended limits for adults are 2-3 units a day for women, and 3-4 for men. It is a depressant which slows down the brain and can effect mood and lower inhibitions. Illegal substances are split into 4 categories: stimulants, depressants, opiates and hallucinogens. * Stimlulants produce extreme well-being, and can increase alertness, confidence and energy levels, examples include ecstasy, cocaine and speed. * Depressants slow down the central nervous system and can reduce anxiety or emotional distress., examples include cannabis and barbiturates.
If the pill has been broken or crushed, it would no longer work slowly over a period of time. Instead it becomes an instant overload of endorphins to the brain. Fairly recently, pharmaceutical companies have come up with another form of OxyContin that when chewed or crushed, turns into a gel like substance. This makes it so abusers of the drug cannot use it intranasal or intravenously. In regular brain function, people produce dopamine during every day experiences.
MDMA (ecstasy) give a person an euphoria feeling, timelessness, hallucinations, and increased energy. It is known for being used in the dance clubs. Ecstasy can have long-term effects on the brain on long-term abusers. “In human MDMA abusers, there is evidence for reduction of serotonergic biochemical markers” (Sarkar & Schmued, 2010, p. 460). Ecstasy can be addicting for some people and cause trouble concentrating, depression, and fatigue because of the reduction of serotonin in the brain.
Stabilization is when other drugs are used to substitute the Opioids. Furthermore, these substitutes help eliminate the feeling and craving for the opioids the patient is addicted to. These substitutes include Methadone, Buprenorphine. According to Clearview treatments , Methadone can stop the cravings for opiates for up to 24 hours, by binding the opioid receptors in your brain(1). A newer prescription drug used, “Buprenorphine, though not as efficient as methadone, also blocks opioid receptors in the brain, but does not produce a state of euphoria to the extent that methadone does” (Clearview treatments 1).
GABA, the hormone responsible for anxiety relief naturally in the human body is enhanced by the BZs. The BZs will also help to reduce the serotonin activity in the brain, which is the neurotransmitter which causes arousal, and reduces anxiety as a result. Benzodiazepines have a number of effects that all lead to the reduction of stress in people without much effort. The other type of drug that could be used to treat stress and anxiety issues are Beta Blockers (BBs). When the body detects stress, the SNS is activated which leads to raised heart rate, which leads to higher blood pressure which can lead to Chronic Heart Disease, heart attack, stroke etc.
“Crack causes a short-lived, intense high that is immediately followed by the opposite—intense depression, edginess and a craving for more of the drug” (What is Crack Cocaine).The people who use crack- cocaine a lot won’t eat neither sleep. The effects you can have are heart racing beats, muscle spasms and convulsions. You can feel angry, paranoid and anxious and you it doesn’t even matter if your high or not if you use crack-cocaine a lot. Crack-cocaine is illegal for a reason, if you do it a lot or not, if one time you use it, you can have heart attacks, seizures or breathing failure which can lead to death. Smoking crack can lead to future health risks, since crack is made with toxic substances that when it is burned it creates toxic fumes.
to 180mg. in strength which could cause an overdose on a single pill if you were a first time user. Oxycodone or oxycontin, serve as a pain medication that when taken exactly as prescribed by a licensed pain specialist can effectively change the way a person experiences pain and rarely leads to an addiction. The NCADI goes on to say that one of the favorite ways for abusers to experience this medication is to crush it and snort it like cocaine which in many instances leads to overdose. Oxycodone is a slow release medication made to have some delayed absorption so the patient may be without pain for longer.