Psy1011 Essay

1305 WordsApr 17, 20136 Pages
Measuring intelligence The Oxford Dictionary explains intelligence as the power of perceiving, learning, understanding, and knowing. “Intelligence is the global capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use available resources effectively when faced with challenges.” Intelligence is to know how individuals differ from one another. It also helps in understanding of how people adapt their behavior according to the environment they live in. Intelligence can be measured by a number of tests. Such tests provide a global measure of a person’s general cognitive competence. According to various psychologists like; • Alfred Binet – He was one of the first psychologists who worked on intelligence. He defined ‘intelligence as the ability to judge well, understand well, and reason well.’ • Wechsler - He defined ‘intelligence as the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully, and to deal effectively with his environment.’ Wechsler intelligence tests are the maximum used to measure intelligence. In many cases we all assume that intelligence is connected to hereditary but this thought is not completely true we can prove this point by explaining through a study on children - In 1908, when the intelligence was measured of identical twins, who were reared together – they are intelligence level was 0.90, Another pair of identical twins reared in different environments had intelligence level of 0.72. Now in the case of fraternal twins reared together had intelligence level of 0.60. Siblings reared Together had intelligence level of 0.50, another pair of siblings reared apart had intelligence level of 0.25. The other way to prove that hereditary places only a small role, Is by this piece of evidence that comes from the studies of adopted children, which show that children’s intelligence is more similar to their biological
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