First is the idea that people can learn through observation. Next is the idea that internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Finally, this theory recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behaviour. Piaget – Cognitive Development He became intrigued with the reasons children gave for their wrong answers on
Antisocial Personality is a term used to describe individuals and whose behavior pattern brings them repeatedly into conflict with society. (Schmalleger,220) 3. Sublimation is the psychological process whereby one aspect of consciousness comes to be symbolically substituted for another. (Schmalleger,225) 4. Modeling Theory is a form of social learning theory that asserts that people learn how to act by observing others.
Subculture theories is a theory where individuals have the same interests, problems and concerns which will form a subculture. Deviance in terms of the subculture of a social group arguing that certain groups develop norms and values which are to some extent different from those held by other members of society. There are a number of sociological theories. Functionalist see shared norms and values as the basis of social order and social solidarity. they consider crime and deviance, ahead of a certain level to be dysfunctional to society, as it is seen as threat to social order.
Also evolutional (inherited from parents) could have an effect on how a child behaves as in the child’s genetics it might be that they are susceptible to violence this means that the child may have more violent tendencies. Also if a child grows up in a hostile environment they may believe that it is normal and it will sculpt their behaviour aggressively in day to day activities. The theorist which links with this psychology aspect is Abraham Maslow. His theory is based on a hierarchy of basic human needs in which they need to have in order to function in society. Maslow says that once you have achieved each level of needs you then get to self-actualisation, this is when you try to fit in with peers, thus changing your behaviour so it is alike theirs.
Myers (2010) provides an example as to how behavior is shaped by social influences making humans social creatures, “We speak and think in words we learned from others (Social psychology, p. 7). At times social environments or situations manipulate behaviors contrary to emotions, overpowering feelings and allowing the situation to guide behaviors. Another ideas of social psychology is that personal attitudes and depositions shape behavior, this describes the belief that inner attitudes and personalities
As John Dewey once stated “Education is not preparation for life; education is life itself”, his perspective of education also emphasizes on the collaboration among learners to an end of academic achievement, just like how importance for people to interact with others if they are to succeed. Reading the excerpt from Democracy and Education (Dewey, 1916), we can be certain that the idea of the group in learning is, to Dewey, of crucial significance. Every single person has a different original environment from which he was born, raised, grew up, and thus is so rooted to it that escaping from the limitations of this social group is not a simple task. Yet Dewey believes the group in learning could give a mean for people to conquer the challenge and “come into living contact with a broader environment” since they not only perform their own action but also have to perceive that of others as reference and react to it. This whole process offers opportunities to break down “those barriers of class, race, and national territory which kept men from perceiving the full import of their activity”.
The social action approach, argues that individuals experience the social world by interpreting their actions and interactions with others and the meaning they assign to social phenomena. The starting point for understanding society should be the individual as they are authors of their own ideas. Emphasis should be given to how shared meanings develop and how these influence the way individuals define, act and react to their environment. Opposing the social action approach are the structural theories. Structural theories such as functionalism and Marxism are macro (large scale), and deterministic: they see society as a real thing existing over and above us, shaping our ideas and behaviour – individuals are like puppets, manipulated by society.
Their thought process is more idealistic. Vygotsky's theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition. Vygotsky believed in a continuous development versus the thought of stage based development. He believed that while children can develop knowledge and lead in their own development, development cannot be separated from social context. Meaning a child will only learn things within their instructors
(Kolb, 1984:41) states that ‘in the figurative aspects, perception and imagination correspond roughly to the apprehension process, and mental imaginary corresponds to the comprehension process. People are not all alike and so how they see the world in a way that makes the most sense to us as individuals. This is called perception, our perceptions shape what we believe, how we make decisions, and how we define what’s important. Our individual perception also determines our natural learning strengths, or learning style. Each individual has his or her own unique learning strengths and weaknesses.
Within pracitce Effective practitioners have a duty to value each child's indivudial needs and likes.children have to experience something before they get a true understanding of what it is like. Example. For the setting to be effective, practitioners must challenge and support children's philosophies of their doings, practitioners muct get involved in the childs thinking process. The practitioner can then be attentive of what the child shows an interest in andhave knowledge of whast the child understands. This can support the children's thinking and extend their learning.