Assignment 1.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY Corsini, R, & Wedding, D 1989, Current Psychotherapies, n.p. : USA : F.E. Peacock Publishers, 1989., Manchester College Library Catalogue, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 December 2012. Dryden, W, & Mytton, J 1999, Four Approaches To Counselling And Psychotherapy, n.p. : UK : Routledge, 1999, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 December 2012.
Outline and evaluate the Biological approach to gender development The biological approach to gender development tells us that sex determines if an individual is genetically a male or female but that gender determines your own feelings about who you are as a person, either masculine or feminine, and this is due to the differences in their brains. This usually is due to the chromosomes a person has or hormonal differences. Every individual has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Women have 2 X chromosomes while men have an X and a Y chromosome. As an embryo, a male’s Y chromosome starts to produce testosterone and other male sex hormones.
Stereotypes that are associated with Native are worrier-hunter images that are portrayed in the American culture (Arviso, 2012). In many cultures stereotyping are common when it comes to lesbians, gay, bisexuals and transgender identifying people. “In sociological terms 'gender role' refers to the characteristics and behaviors that different cultures attribute to the sexes. What it means to be a 'real man' in any culture requires male sex plus what our various cultures define as masculine characteristics and behaviors, likewise a 'real woman' needs female sex and feminine characteristics” (Noblius, 2003). In Native cultures two spirit people are free to be who they
The jealousy is seen by evolutionary psychologists as an adaptive response and it is therefore useful. Similarly, the jealous individual in the relationship could also cause their partner to commit an infidelity. It is noted that men are more likely to experience jealousy because of their fear of cuckoldry. Women, on the other hand, are worried about sharing or losing their investments and resources. Both men and women have evolved retention strategies to deter mates from infidelity.
Fitness in evolutionary terms is the abilty to reproduce and leave offspring. There are two types of sexual selection: Intersexual selection is where one sex often females chooses a partener from the avalible pool based ont eh one with the most desirable genes. Intra-sexual selection, is competition for reproductive success between member of the same se for example females are scarce resource for which males compete. The fundamental goal of human behavior is to reproduce and pass on our genes to the next generation tehrfore humun reproductive behavior had been influenced by sexual selection pressures. Evolutionary psychologists that me have enmvolved to be responsive to females who are young and attractive since these are ohysical cues to a womens reproductive value wheres women seek indicators of socio-economic stautus.
Darwin, who introduced the evolutionary theory, defined sexual selection as certain behaviours which are due to selective pressure from the social environment meaning, an individual is selected on the basis of reproductive success. Features that show signs of reproductive success is attractive to the opposite sex as well as chances of survival, and also enables them to compete, increasing the individual’s chance of reproduction. According to Trivers (1972), the sex which invests least in the process of reproduction will compete for the sex that invests less. Intra-sexual selection is used to define those who compete within a species to attract a mate. As males are less investing, they compete within themselves through intra-sexual selection to achieve the dominant position of the alpha male and so have exclusive access to females.
(2009, January). Social isolation in older adults: an evolutionary concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(6), 1342-1352. Retrieved from University of Phoenix online library http://www.apollolibrary.com/Library/Library.aspx U.S. Census Bureau. (2005).
Cultural Anthropology. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu The Sense of Collectivism and Individualism among Husbands and Wives in Traditional and Bi -cultural Navajo Families on the Navajo Reservation Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=6&hid=13&sid=db154e5d-6616-4121-b385-bfbf64cc9579%40sessionmgr11. U.S. Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012, retrieved from
Iraq's gay and lesbian community being targeted by death squad: Report. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/03/06/iraq- Cahn, N. (2005). Legalizing gay marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1348-1349. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219766086?accountid=27899 Clark, J. M. (2004).