Hemispheric specialization refers to the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language, emotions, motor control and so on ( Feldman, 2009). The brain is a part of the central nervous system which is the subdivision of the nervous system. Its main role is to process sensory information from various parts of the body to make them meaningful. The brain receives sensory information from all parts of the body through the spinal cord (Passer & Smith, 2009). Basically, the brain is divided into three parts.
On the other hand, Wernicke’s area is responsible for the comprehension of speech, which its function is linked with language development (GNU). Hence, one is mainly for speaking and the other for listening. The locations of both parts are different within the brain. According the studies, Broca’s area is located around the inferior frontal gyrus, which is a part of the frontal lobe (Wisegeek). The frontal lobe’s main functions are movement control and language production that thrive from the primary motor cortex.
(2000) defines the frontal lobe as the part of the brain that controls important cognitive skills in humans. It is located in the front of the brain deep to the frontal bone of the skull. It plays an integral role for example the following functions that is memory formation, emotions, decision making/reasoning, personality, conscious thought, behaviour, planning, organizing, problem solving. The frontal lobe is the most uniquely human of all the brain structures. It is also responsible for primary motor function, or our ability to consciously move our muscles, and the two key areas related to speech, including Broca’s area.
Parietal lobe - responsible for sensory information from the body, also where letters are formed, putting things in order and spatial awareness. Occipital lobe- responsible for processing information related to vision Cerebrum lobe - biggest part of the Brain its role is memory, attention, thought, and our consciousness, senses and movement. Hippocampus = responsible for memory forming, organizing and storing and emotions. 3. Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia.
& Mitterer, J. O., 2013). The temporal lobes also play a significant role in understanding language. It is important to understand that there are association areas in both lobes and it is these areas that combine and process information from the senses. So although there are specific areas where we know auditory information is processed, such as in the temporal lobes, or where motor functions are controlled, such as in the frontal lobes, the association areas make up the majority of these lobes. Which is why damage to any part of these areas on the left hemisphere of the brain can cause aphasia, which is having “impaired ability to use language” (Coon, D. & Mitterer, J. O.,
Each of these lobes has different functions from each other. On the other hand, the neurotransmitters are the information carriers, they carry electrochemical signals to and from the brain throughout the entire body in human beings. Then, we have the nervous system which can actually be divided into two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) where the brain and spinal cord are parts of the CNS. The PNS can still be divided into two specific parts, the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). While the SNS directs the movements of the skeletal muscles, the ANS regulates involuntary processes such as the heart beating, breathing, blood pressure, and blood sugar level.
It has widespread connections with the rest of the forebrain and the midbrain. Partly through nerves and partly through hypothalamic hormones, the hypothalamus conveys messages to the pituitary gland, altering its release of hormones (Kalat, 2003). According to “American Accreditation Health Commission,” The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycle.
The cerebrum, which develops from the front portion of the forebrain, is the largest part of the mature brain. It consists of two large masses, called cerebral hemispheres, which are almost mirror images of each other. They are connected by a deep bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum and are separated by a layer called the falx cerebri. The cerebrum or cortex is associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. White matter is a component of the central nervous system, in the brain and superficial spinal cord, and consists mostly of glial cells and myelinated axons that transmit signals from one region of the cerebrum to another and between the cerebrum and lower brain centers.
Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12 marks) Baddeley and Hitch proposed that memory has 4 components. The central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer. The central executive decides how to share out and direct attention to incoming information. The phonological loop can be thought of as a maintenance rehearsal mechanism for retaining verbal information. It is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store (inner ear), which holds acoustically coded information, and the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows for sub vocal rehearsal (words you are about to say).
Among them, cerebrum is characteristic of the human being in the three parts of the brain. The cerebrum is a section of the brain where Cognitive functions begins. Cerebrum also breaks into four parts such as occipital lobe, temporal cortex, parietal lobe, and frontal cortex. Each of these areas has a particular task that they are responsible for; however, most of these areas serve a specific cognitive function (CNBC, 2009). These functions are speaking, emotion, problem- solving, learning, and perception.