Psychology, Crime & Law, 13 (1), 47-56. The five internal factors of the multifactor offender readiness model described by Howell and Day (2007) are: 1: Cognitive; 2: Affective; 3: Volitional; 4: Behavioral and 5: Identity. 1: Cognitive Factors The expectations of therapy as well as perceptions and beliefs of staff and programmes all may impair engagement of the offender/s. The other cognitions are if s/he fields capable of engagement of change as are the beliefs about the benefits and costs of treatment. 2: Affective Factors The three aspects of emotionality that the identified as influences of readiness are: the capacity to experience, express and recollect emotional states.
2.1 Compare the strengths and limitations of a range of assessment methods with reference to the needs of individual learners. 3.1 Summarise the key factors to consider when planning assessment. 3.2 Evaluate the benefits of using a holistic approach to assessment. 3.3 Explain how to apply holistic assessment when planning assessment. 3.4 Summarise the types of risks that may be involved in assessment in own area of practice.
a) Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience. participants were pressured to follow their standards and be responsive to others. In Milgram’s study, participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas and the experimenter’s orders. 3.a) Describe the influence of proximity, physical
Limitations of the tri-component model The tri-component model of attitudes insist that all three components (affective, behavioural, cognitive) must be present before it can be considered an attitude. Limitations of tri-component model When we aware that there are inconsistencies within our attitudes (that is the way we behave is different from how we believe we should behave) we experience cognitive dissonance. cognitive dissonance Strength of the Attitude-Attitudes and Behaviour A strong attitude is an attitude that is usually thought about, well-known and easily accessible. It also tends to be personally relevant and have a strong underlying emotional component. Accessibility of the Attitude Social Context of the attitude attitudes and behaviour are more likely to be consistent when the
This study examines the relationship between TCP and IIs about conflict. Results indicate that trait TCP is correlated with rumination, that a variety of significant relationships appear between trait TCP and II characteristics, and that trait TCP predicts state TCP immediately after a conflict-oriented II. People often think about interpersonal conflict in the absence of their relational partners (Honeycutt, 2003; Honeycutt & Cantrill, 2001). One way that people work through interpersonal conflict is via imagined interactions (IIs). IIs represent a ‘‘process of cognition whereby actors imagine themselves in interaction with others ...they reflect a distinct kind of thinking in which communicators experience or actually work through cognitive representations of conversation’’ (Edwards,Honeycutt, & Zagacki, 1988, p. 24).
We make an Internal Representation (I/R) of thatevent. That I/R of the event combines with a physiology and creates a state. "State" refers to the internal emotional state of the individual – ahappy state, asad state, a motivated state, and so on. Our I/R includes our internal pictures,sounds and dialogue, and our feelings (for example, whether we feel motivated,challenged, pleased, excited, and so on). A given state is the result of thecombination of an internal representation and a physiology.
5.5 Adopt a behavior approach to measuring performance including the identification and assessment of competencies. 5.6 Develop competencies that are defined clearly, provide a description of specific behavioral indicators that can be observed when someone demonstrates a competency effectively, provide a description of specific behaviors that are likely to occur when someone doesn’t demonstrate a competency effectively (what a competency is not), and include suggestions for developing them further. 5.7 Develop comparative performance measurement systems such as simple rank order, alternation rank order, paired comparisons, and forced distribution--being aware of the relative advantages and disadvantages of each. 5.8 Develop absolute performance measurement systems such as essays, behavior checklists, critical incidents, and graphic rating scales, and understand their advantages and disadvantages. Chapter Outline Measuring Results and Behaviors Overview Measuring Results Measuring Behaviors Measuring Results • Key Questions o Where should each individual
Wolfensberger claims his theory of Normalisation/SRV rests on a solid foundation of well-established social and behavioural science theory. (Wolfensberger, 1983). It incorporates multiple bodies of inquiry such as, the sociology of deviancy; learning theory; role theory; the function and power of social imagery; mind-sets and expectancies, the social and psychological process involved in unconsciousness; and group dynamics. (Osburn, 1998) Wolfensberger and Tullman (1989) break the normalisation theory into seven major core themes, which serves to aid the understanding of it, as follows: 1. The role of unconscious in human services: This is concerned with the unconscious negative dynamics pertaining to human services that contribute to the devaluation of particular groups of people in society.
Next on the continuum are three forms of extrinsic motivation: External Regulation, Introjection and Identification. Extrinsic motivation refers to a wide variety of behaviours which are engaged as a means to their end and not for their own sake (Deci, 1975). Such behaviours include rewards, punishments, constraints and other external contingencies. Intrinsic motivation is defined as the engagement of an activity on one's own accord, out of interest, and for the contentment or gratification one experiences while performing it (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Harter, 1982). From lower to higher levels of self-determination, Intrinsic Motivation can be broken down into three sub-types: To Know, To Accomplish and To Experience Simulation.