Protein Synthesis Essay

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The Central Dogma of molecular biology is a framework which explains the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA, RNA to polypeptides. Protein synthesis is made up of two main stages. The first is transcription, which is the transfer of information from DNA to RNA inside the nucleus. The second stage is translation. In translation, the RNA gets turned into a protein. This stage takes place in the cytoplasm and ribosomes. RNA is an important type of nucleic acid that plays several roles in the production of proteins. It is necessary to carry out the instructions of the DNA out of the nucleus. There are three steps in transcription: initiation, elongation, and termination. In initiation, the RNA polymerase binds to a promoter, which is a region of DNA that has a specific base sequence. The double helix unwinds and is now ready to be transcribed. In elongation, the RNA polymerase moves along the protein encoding gene adding new RNA nucleotides complimentary to the DNA template. In the last phase, termination, a specific base sequence signals the end of the gene. The RNA polymerase then detaches from the RNA molecule and the gene. Before the mRNA is done, it might need some editing. The pieces that are cut out are called introns, and the pieces that remain are called extrons. After the final revisions, the mRNA is complete. Once transcription has ended, the mRNA moves into the cytoplasm to begin translation. A ribosome attaches to an mRNA molecule. The codons start to pass through the ribosome, and the tRNA brings the necessary amino acids into the ribosome. A codon is a 3- base sequence of mRNA. Each tRNA molecule has a base triplet called an anticodon on each end. Every anticodon is opposite to the codon on the mRNA. The ribosome helps form a peptide bond between the first two amino acids (methionine and phenylalanine). The tRNA brings the last amino acid

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