In Why Nations Go to War, Dr.John G Stoessinger talks about the role of individuals in starting wars. He is of the view that factors like economics, nationalism, alliance networks and even fate are often put forward as the primary reasons for the outbreak of a war, but the human element, the personalities, the hopes and fears and the particular worldview of the individual leaders of the country are not given nearly as much importance. The writer points out that wars are after all, started by people and to a large extent, the book deals with the lead up to the moment when people finally decide to go to war. The author holds a Ph.D. from Harvard and has taught at Harvard, M.I.T, Columbia and Princeton. He won the Bancroft Prize for his book, The Might of Nations and he has served as acting director for the political affairs division at the United Nations.
He discusses prime wars such as, World War I, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam, and the wars in the Middle East. Stoessinger explains that some problems, such as political and economical issues, have hurt the outcome of each of these wars. Stoessinger mentions key leaders that had heavy impacts on each war. He points out people such as the German Kaiser Wilhelm, Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, General MacArthur, Slobodan Milosevic, Saddam Hussein, and Osama bin Laden. Stoessinger also calls out five presidents that helped America be torn apart; Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon.
Modern History Assignment International Studies in Peace and Conflict: The Cold War “Evaluate the view that the ideologies of capitalism and communism influenced policies and strategies in the Cold War.” While the Cold War has come to be defined as "a clash of ideologies" by a majority of historians, the principles of capitalism and communism were exaggerated in political rhetoric by both the United States and the Soviet Union. Although the conflicting ideologies had a formative influence on the early strategies of the two superpowers – establishing a framework that would shape future policy - national and economic interests had a more significant impact on overall Cold War foreign response. However, an assessment of influences on policy making must be more complex than simply ‘ideological’ or ‘economic’. As Martin McCauley writes, "the weaknesses of the orthodox and revisionist analyses are evident: the former pays little attention to the legitimate security needs of the USSR, while the latter ignores Soviet behaviour which gave rise to shifts in American policy." In examining the factors that shaped the various strategies of the struggle, a more balanced post-revisionist approach must be taken.
Even though the names and roles of the political parties were changed throughout time, they still divided and created turmoil because of the competition between them. This issue was foreseen by the first president George Washington. He even warned about it by writing it in his Farewell Address to America (cite) yet despite of his warning they instead continue with the political parties. Those parties became the Republican Party in the North and the Democratic Party in the South. There were many differences between the two and each difference created more and more tension until they reached the breaking point of war.
In conjunction with the social outlook of the nation, the policies in particular that were implemented by the Federal government and the Federal Reserve preceding each clash played significant roles in determining the consequences of the wars and their aftermath in the United States. Before thoroughly examining policies in American history and their intended or unintended consequences, it is important to first understand the difference between specific types of policies. According to the Federal Reserve System, the goal of Monetary Policy is “to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates” (Purposes and Functions). In order to achieve these objectives, the Federal Open Market Committee is authorized to set the federal funds
If I use the speech former President Bush gave after the 9/11 attacks as an example, he delivered those speeches due to the fact that there was a situation that required attention, or exigence. The audience Bitzer describes is to be constrained in decision and action whether the audience is yourself or an ideal mind. In this given example the audience was the American citizens, because we were capable of serving as mediators of the change with the discourse functions to produce. Finally, the constraints are what influence the rhetor and they can be brought to bear upon the audience. When an orator enters the situation, their discourse not only harnesses constrains given by the situation, but also provides additional important constraints.
President Nixon's Watergate scandal only seemed to fortify this distrust. Congress, in an effort to prevent another conflict like Vietnam in the future, passed the War Powers Act. This stated that Congress had to be informed that troops would be into possible combat situations, and had to take action of those troops within 60 days (Schulzinger, 1999). It would seem as though the Vietnam War and all of the battles our nation had to endure at this fragile moment in history would help define our nation. The United States was torn in many factions at that time period, Civil Rights Movement being a major one.
As the America's leader, the president is considered our countries head figure who stands and acts for the American people as a whole. Many of these implied powers, which are assumed as granted under the Constitution although not explicitly listed, branch from a president's responsibilities that increased over the past few decades. Many presidents have used their implied or informal presidential powers to enhance their personal influences, and often the power and potential influences of later presidents. These informal powers are also derived in part from the president’s use of the image and reputation of the office
Most Significant Events Sara Jones HIST/135 June 3, 2012 James Faurie Most Significant Events The United States of America was in an extremely rough place at the end of World War II. The decades following the war had many events that helped shape America as we know it today. There were political, social and economic events that occurred in each of the decades following World War II. These events changed how politics were run; wars took place and the moving from a very conservative time period to a period of experimentation and liberal views. This paper will look at some of those political, social and economic events that took place and helped to create the freedom and restrictions we see in the United States today.
key causes of war: Depending on which conflict that is being referred to the key causes of war are many and very broad. The key causes that are put foward include the theory of Structuralism which refers to the changing in the distribution of power within the global system as the primary factor in determining a states behavior. Enduring rivalries which is prolonged competition between great powers or other pairs of countries whos conflicting interests often lead to war. Balance of power which explains the tendency of opposed coalitions to be formed so the distribution of military power is balanced to prevent one single power from dominating others. Rational choice is the theory that decison makers choose on the basis of what is best for themselves and their states.